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Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays an important role in neuropathic pain. Recently, it has been shown that Lumbar 5 ventral root transection (L5 VRT) induces persistent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in bilateral hind paws. In the present study, the role of TNF-alpha in the L5 VRT model(More)
Patients with chronic pain usually suffer from working memory deficits, which may decrease their intellectual ability significantly. Despite intensive clinical studies, the mechanism underlying this form of memory impairment remains elusive. In this study, we investigated this issue in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain, a most common(More)
Previous studies have shown that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in spinal dorsal horn are upregulated after nerve injury and that many TNF-alpha-containing neurons overexpress TNFR1. In the present study, we found that peri-sciatic administration of rat recombinant TNF-alpha (rrTNF) at the(More)
BACKGROUND Clearance of synaptically released glutamate, and hence termination of glutamatergic neurotransmission, is carried out by glutamate transporters, most especially glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and the glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) that are located in astrocytes. It is becoming increasingly well appreciated that changes in the function(More)
Several lines of evidence indicate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and PI3K-protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt) signal pathway mediate the pain hypersensitivity induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin or nerve growth factor. However, the role of PI3K and PI3K-PKB/Akt signal pathway activation in neuropathic pain is still unclear. Using L5 spinal(More)
A large body of evidence has demonstrated that the ectopic discharges of action potentials in primary afferents, resulted from the abnormal expression of voltage gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following peripheral nerve injury are important for the development of neuropathic pain. However, how nerve injury affects the(More)
At present, effective drug for treatment of neuropathic pain is still lacking. Recent studies have shown that the ligands of translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa), a peripheral receptor for benzodiazepine, modulate inflammatory pain. Here, we report that TSPO was upregulated in astrocytes and microglia in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn of rats following(More)
It has been shown that following peripheral nerve injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) released by activated microglia contributes to neuropathic pain, but whether BDNF affects the function of microglia is still unknown. In the present work we found that spinal application of BDNF, which induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber evoked(More)
Compelling evidence shows that the adjacent uninjured primary afferents play an important role in the development of neuropathic pain after nerve injury. The underlying mechanisms, however, are largely unknown. In the present study, the selective motor fiber injury was performed by L5 ventral root transection (L5 VRT), and p38 activation in dorsal root(More)
Many studies have shown that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as a neurotransmitter, is involved in plastic changes of synaptic transmission in central nervous system. In the present study, we tested whether extracellular ATP can induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in spinal dorsal horn. The results showed the following: (1)(More)