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A historical perspective on the application of molecular dynamics (MD) to biological macromolecules is presented. Recent developments combining state-of-the-art force fields with continuum solvation calculations have allowed us to reach the fourth era of MD applications in which one can often derive both accurate structure and accurate relative free(More)
Chemokines direct the trafficking of white blood cells in immune surveillance, playing a key role in inflammatory and infectious diseases such as AIDS. All chemokines studied so far are secreted proteins of relative molecular mass approximately 7K-15K and fall into three families that are defined by a cysteine signature motif: CXC, CC and C (refs 3, 6, 7),(More)
Asia has served as a focal point for human migration during much of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Clarification of East Asia's role as a source and/or transit point for human dispersals requires that this region's own settlement history be understood. To this end, we examined variation at 52 polymorphic sites on the nonrecombining portion of the Y(More)
ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes are known to facilitate transcriptional activation by opening chromatin structures. We report a novel human complex, named NURD, which contains not only ATP-dependent nucleosome disruption activity, but also histone deacetylase activity, which usually associates with transcriptional repression. The deacetylation(More)
We have identified recessive overproliferation mutations by screening and examining clones of mutant cells in genetic mosaics of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. This type of screen provides a powerful approach for identifying and studying potential tumor suppressors. One of the identified genes, lats, has been cloned and encodes a putative protein(More)
Flavones and isoflavones may play a prominent role in cancer prevention since these compounds are found in numerous plants that are associated with reduced cancer rates. This article reviews recent epidemiological and animal data on isoflavones and flavones and their role in cancer prevention. It covers aspects of the bioavailability of these dietary(More)
Central nervous system myelin is a specialized structure produced by oligodendrocytes that ensheaths axons, allowing rapid and efficient saltatory conduction of action potentials. Many disorders promote damage to and eventual loss of the myelin sheath, which often results in significant neurological morbidity. However, little is known about the fundamental(More)
TRAPP is a conserved protein complex required early in the secretory pathway. Here, we report two forms of TRAPP, TRAPP I and TRAPP II, that mediate different transport events. Using chemically pure TRAPP I and COPII vesicles, we have reconstituted vesicle targeting in vitro. The binding of COPII vesicles to TRAPP I is specific, blocked by GTPgammaS, and,(More)
The SWI/SNF complex in yeast facilitates the function of transcriptional activators by opposing chromatin-dependent repression of transcription. We demonstrate that in mammals SWI/SNF complexes are present in multiple forms made up of 9-12 proteins that we refer to as BRG1-associated factors (BAFs) ranging from 47 to 250 kD. We have isolated cDNAs for human(More)
Upon entry into a host cell, retroviruses direct the reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome and the establishment of an integrated proviral DNA. The retroviral integrase protein (IN) is responsible for the insertion of the viral DNA into host chromosomal targets. The two-hybrid system was used to identify a human gene product that binds tightly to(More)