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Here we studied the auditory thalamic input to the insular cortex using mice as a model system. An insular auditory field (IAF) has recently been identified in mice. By using retrograde neuronal tracing, we identified auditory thalamic neurons projecting to the IAF, primary auditory cortex (AI), and anterior auditory field (AAF). After mapping the IAF, AAF,(More)
Dopamine D4 receptors (D4R) are localized in the globus pallidus (GP), but their function remains unknown. In contrast, dopamine D2 receptor activation hyperpolarizes medium spiny neurons projecting from the striatum to the GP and inhibits GABA release. However, using slice preparations from D2R-deficient [D2 knock-out (D2KO)] mice, we found that dopamine(More)
We used voltage-sensitive-dye-based imaging techniques to identify and characterize the insular auditory field (IAF) in mice. Previous research has identified five auditory fields in the mouse auditory cortex, including the primary field and the anterior auditory field. This study confirmed the existence of the primary field and anterior auditory field by(More)
We investigated, in a midbrain parasagittal slice preparation of Wistar rats (postnatal day 9-17), the synaptic inhibition of neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), which was mediated by gamma (gamma)-amino-butyric acid (GABA). Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used, in combination with a single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase(More)
Many ionic currents undergo significant rundown during whole-cell recording. Although rundown is an artifact associated with the recording method, studying the mechanism of rundown may lead to understanding mechanisms regulating channel functions in physiological conditions. The mechanisms for rundown, however, remain obscure for many channels. Here we have(More)
Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is thought to play a pivotal role in activity-dependent neuronal differentiation and circuit formation. Here, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9), which regulates transcription by histone modification, in the development of neocortical neurons. The translocation of HDAC9 from nucleus to(More)
Sphingomyelin (SM) is a sphingolipid reported to function as a structural component of plasma membranes and to participate in signal transduction. The role of SM metabolism in the process of hearing remains controversial. Here, we examined the role of SM synthase (SMS), which is subcategorized into the family members SMS1 and SMS2, in auditory function.(More)
Recent studies in humans and monkeys have reported that acoustic stimulation influences visual responses in the primary visual cortex (V1). Such influences can be generated in V1, either by direct auditory projections or by feedback projections from extrastriate cortices. To test these hypotheses, cortical activities were recorded using optical imaging at a(More)
As a step to develop auditory prosthesis by cortical stimulation, we tested whether a single train of pulses applied to the primary auditory cortex could elicit classically conditioned behavior in guinea pigs. Animals were trained using a tone as the conditioned stimulus and an electrical shock to the right eyelid as the unconditioned stimulus. After(More)
In the primary auditory cortex (AI), a pure tone evokes propagating activity along a strip of the cortex. We have previously shown that focal activation of AI triggers autonomously propagating activity that resembles tone-evoked activity (Song et al., 2006). Because a focal spontaneous activity is expected to trigger similar activity propagation,(More)