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The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a key role in motor control. Although previous studies have suggested that Ca(2+) conductances may be involved in regulating the activity of STN neurons, Ca(2+) channels in this region have not yet been characterized. We have therefore investigated the subtypes and functional characteristics of Ca(2+) conductances in STN(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) directly innervates the output structures of the basal ganglia, playing a key role in basal ganglia function. It is therefore important to understand the regulatory mechanisms for the activity of STN neurons. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how the intrinsic membrane properties of STN neurons interact with their(More)
Here we studied the auditory thalamic input to the insular cortex using mice as a model system. An insular auditory field (IAF) has recently been identified in mice. By using retrograde neuronal tracing, we identified auditory thalamic neurons projecting to the IAF, primary auditory cortex (AI), and anterior auditory field (AAF). After mapping the IAF, AAF,(More)
A pure tone evokes propagating activities in a strip of the primary auditory cortex (AI), an isofrequency strip (IS). A fundamental issue concerns the roles that thalamocortical input and intracortical connectivity play in generating the activities. Here we addressed this issue in guinea pigs using in vivo and in vitro real-time optical imaging techniques.(More)
KCNQ1, located on 11p15.5, encodes a voltage-gated K(+) channel with six transmembrane regions, and loss-of-function mutations in the KCNQ1 gene cause hereditary long QT syndrome. Recent genetic studies have identified that single nucleotide polymorphisms located in intron 15 of the KCNQ1 gene are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes and impaired(More)
Channel density is a fundamental factor in determining neuronal firing and is primarily regulated during development through transcriptional and translational regulation. In adult rats, striatal cholinergic interneurons have a prominent A-type current and co-express Kv4.1 and Kv4.2 mRNAs. There is evidence that Kv4.2 plays a primary role in producing the(More)
We tested the possibility of using a high-power monochromatic InGaN light-emitting diode (LED) as an excitation light source for real-time optical imaging using the voltage-sensitive dye RH-795. Driven with a custom-designed, non-feedback-controlled constant-current circuit, the LED generated stable light with rapid on/off. The LED was comparable with(More)
We used voltage-sensitive-dye-based imaging techniques to identify and characterize the insular auditory field (IAF) in mice. Previous research has identified five auditory fields in the mouse auditory cortex, including the primary field and the anterior auditory field. This study confirmed the existence of the primary field and anterior auditory field by(More)
Optical recording in vivo is severely interfered by heartbeat and respiratory noises. Here we tested if these noises can be removed from in vivo optical recordings from the primary auditory cortex of the guinea pig, using independent component analysis (ICA). We applied a fast ICA algorithm combined with principal component analysis to optical recordings of(More)
We investigated, in a midbrain parasagittal slice preparation of Wistar rats (postnatal day 9-17), the synaptic inhibition of neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), which was mediated by gamma (gamma)-amino-butyric acid (GABA). Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used, in combination with a single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase(More)