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In recent years, the distribution of dopamine receptor subtypes among the principal neurons of the neostriatum has been the subject of debate. Conventional anatomical and physiological approaches have yielded starkly different estimates of the extent to which D1 and D2 class dopamine receptors are colocalized. One plausible explanation for the discrepancy(More)
Unlike other neostriatal neurons, cholinergic interneurons exhibit spontaneous, low-frequency, repetitive firing. To gain an understanding of the K+ channels regulating this behavior, acutely isolated adult rat cholinergic interneurons were studied using whole-cell voltage-clamp and single-cell reverse transcription-PCR techniques. Cholinergic interneurons(More)
Dopamine has long been known to regulate the activity of striatal cholinergic interneurons and the release of acetylcholine. Yet, the cellular mechanisms by which this regulation occurs have not been elucidated. One way in which dopamine might act is by modulating voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. To test this hypothesis, the impact of dopaminergic agonists(More)
GnRH neurons form the final common pathway for central control of reproduction, with regulation achieved by changing the pattern of GnRH pulses. To help elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pulsatile GnRH release, we generated transgenic mice in which the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter was genetically targeted to GnRH neurons. The(More)
In brain neurons, P- and Q-type Ca(2+) channels both appear to include a class A alpha1 subunit. In spite of this similarity, these channels differ pharmacologically and biophysically, particularly in inactivation kinetics. The molecular basis for this difference is unclear. In heterologous systems, alternative splicing and ancillary beta subunits have been(More)
Whole cell recordings from acutely dissociated neocortical pyramidal neurons and striatal medium spiny neurons exhibited a calcium-channel current resistant to known blockers of L-, N-, and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. These R-type currents were characterized as high-voltage-activated (HVA) by their rapid deactivation kinetics, half-activation and(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) directly innervates the output structures of the basal ganglia, playing a key role in basal ganglia function. It is therefore important to understand the regulatory mechanisms for the activity of STN neurons. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how the intrinsic membrane properties of STN neurons interact with their(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a key role in motor control. Although previous studies have suggested that Ca(2+) conductances may be involved in regulating the activity of STN neurons, Ca(2+) channels in this region have not yet been characterized. We have therefore investigated the subtypes and functional characteristics of Ca(2+) conductances in STN(More)
Inwardly rectifying K+ (IRK) channels are critical for shaping cell excitability. Whole-cell patch-clamp and single-cell RT-PCR techniques were used to characterize the inwardly rectifying K+ currents found in projection neurons of the rat nucleus accumbens. Inwardly rectifying currents were highly selective for K+ and blocked by low millimolar(More)
Here we studied the auditory thalamic input to the insular cortex using mice as a model system. An insular auditory field (IAF) has recently been identified in mice. By using retrograde neuronal tracing, we identified auditory thalamic neurons projecting to the IAF, primary auditory cortex (AI), and anterior auditory field (AAF). After mapping the IAF, AAF,(More)