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BACKGROUND On March 30, 2013, a novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus that infects human beings was identified. This virus had been detected in six provinces and municipal cities in China as of April 18, 2013. We correlated genomic sequences from avian influenza viruses with ecological information and did phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to extrapolate the(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2, SS2) is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes only sporadic cases of meningitis and sepsis in humans. Most if not all cases of Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) that have been well-documented to date were associated with the non-SS2 group A streptococcus (GAS). However, a recent large-scale(More)
This investigation was performed to determine the neuroprotective effect of baicalin on permanent cerebral ischemia injury in rats and the potential mechanisms in this process. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). The rats were then received intraperitoneal injection with baicalin (10, 30 and 100(More)
BACKGROUND Infection of poultry with influenza A subtype H7 viruses occurs worldwide, but the introduction of this subtype to humans in Asia has not been observed previously. In March 2013, three urban residents of Shanghai or Anhui, China, presented with rapidly progressing lower respiratory tract infections and were found to be infected with a novel(More)
BACKGROUND The novel influenza A H7N9 virus emerged recently in mainland China, whereas the influenza A H5N1 virus has infected people in China since 2003. Both infections are thought to be mainly zoonotic. We aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of the complete series of laboratory-confirmed cases of both viruses in mainland China so far.(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterise the complete case series of influenza A/H7N9 infections as of 27 May 2013, detected by China's national sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illness. DESIGN Case series. SETTING Outpatient clinics and emergency departments of 554 sentinel hospitals across 31 provinces in mainland China. CASES Infected individuals(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are considered to mediate the inflammatory reaction, which are involved in the pathophysiological processes of cerebral ischemia injury. To elucidate the possible role of inflammatory reaction and TLR2/4 signaling pathway in cerebral ischemia, in the present study, we explored the spatio-temporal distribution of inflammatory(More)
Focal cerebral ischemia results in an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which induces vasogenic brain edema via disrupting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Recent studies from our laboratory showed that baicalin reduces ischemic brain damage by inhibiting inflammatory reaction and neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of focal(More)
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a common contagious disease that usually affects children, is normally mild but can have life-threatening manifestations. It can be caused by enteroviruses, particularly Coxsackieviruses and human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) with highly variable clinical manifestations. In the spring of 2008, a large, unprecedented HFMD(More)
Our previous studies demonstrated that inflammatory reaction and neuronal apoptosis are the most important pathological mechanisms in ischemia-induced brain damage. Propofol has been shown to attenuate ischemic brain damage via inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of propofol on brain damage and inflammatory(More)