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The field of organic thin films and devices is progressing at an extremely rapid pace. Organic–metal and organic–organic interfaces play crucial roles in charge injection into, and transport through, these devices. Their electronic structure, chemical properties, and electrical behavior must be fully characterized and understood if the engineering and(More)
P-doping of zinc phthalocyanine ~ZnPc! with tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) is investigated with ultraviolet and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy, and in situ current–voltage (I – V) measurements. The electron affinity of F4-TCNQ ~5.24 eV! is found to be equal, within experimental error, to the ionization(More)
This article examines how the concept of alignment of charge neutrality levels (CNL) can be used to explain and predict interface dipole and molecular level offset at organic–organic (OO) heterojunctions. The application of the model of CNL alignment to interfaces between undoped materials is reviewed first. The model is then extended to explain the shift(More)
The p-type doping of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) with the highly electronegative tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) is investigated via direct and inverse photoemission spectroscopy and in situ current–voltage (I–V ) measurement. The electron affinity of F4-TCNQ and the ionization energy of ZnPc are found to be energetically compatible with an(More)
The existing Web services lack of support of formal semantics obviously, so Web services discovery is difficult for users to select the best service because of lacking description for quality of service (QoS), therefore, this paper presents a QoS-based ontology model for Web services discovery, and the model uses classification and feedback mechanisms which(More)
Research and development irrigation management information systems are the important measures of making irrigation management more modernized and standardized. The difficulties of building information systems have been increased along with the continuous development of information technology and the complexity of information systems, information systems put(More)
Abstract Organic–metal and organic–organic interfaces play crucial roles in charge injection in, and transport through, organic thin film devices. Their electronic structure, chemical properties and electrical behaviour must be fully characterized and understood if engineering and control of organic devices are to reach the levels attained for inorganic(More)
Ontology is an explicit formal sharing conceptualization of one domain. Ontology maintenance is one of most important work during ontology’s development lifecycle. Cycle of concepts is one of the most common inconsistency errors in ontology. In this paper, we propose a method of eliminating direct super-class to detect cycle of concepts (EDS2DCC).(More)
At present, some problems have emerged in the detection systems such as collecting incomprehensive evidence, over-reliance on the confessions and other problems. All of these problems stem from data can not be shared. To eliminate this disadvantage, this paper proposed a detective decision support system (DSS) based on content cognition technology. Ontology(More)
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