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The field of organic thin films and devices is progressing at an extremely rapid pace. Organic–metal and organic– organic interfaces play crucial roles in charge injection into, and transport through, these devices. Their electronic structure, chemical properties, and electrical behavior must be fully characterized and understood if the engineering and(More)
The p-type doping of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) with the highly electronegative tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodime-thane (F 4-TCNQ) is investigated via direct and inverse photoemission spectroscopy and in situ current–voltage (I–V) measurement. The electron affinity of F 4-TCNQ and the ionization energy of ZnPc are found to be energetically compatible with an(More)
This article examines how the concept of alignment of charge neutrality levels (CNL) can be used to explain and predict interface dipole and molecular level offset at organic–organic (OO) heterojunctions. The application of the model of CNL alignment to interfaces between undoped materials is reviewed first. The model is then extended to explain the shift(More)
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