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We implemented a Lagrange-multiplier (LM)-based damped least-squares (DLS) control algorithm in a woofer-tweeter dual deformable-mirror (DM) adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The algorithm uses data from a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to simultaneously correct large-amplitude low-order aberrations by a woofer DM and(More)
We have developed a new, unified implementation of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) incorporating a wide-field line-scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) and a closed-loop optical retinal tracker. AOSLO raster scans are deflected by the integrated tracking mirrors so that direct AOSLO stabilization is automatic during tracking. The(More)
Adaptive optics (AO) has greatly improved retinal image resolution. However, even with AO, temporal and spatial variations in image quality still occur due to wavefront fluctuations, intraframe focus shifts, and other factors. As a result, aligning and averaging images can produce a mean image that has lower resolution or contrast than the best images(More)
Many next-generation adaptive optics (AO) systems for vision will have two deformable mirrors (DMs) instead of one: a high-stroke, low-resolution mirror (the woofer) and a low-stroke, high-resolution mirror (the tweeter). We developed a zonal wavefront-control algorithm and validated it using simulations. Rather than separating the woofer and tweeter(More)
We present an iterative technique for improving adaptive optics (AO) wavefront correction for retinal imaging, called the Adaptive-Influence-Matrix (AIM) method. This method is based on the fact that the deflection-to-voltage relation of common deformable mirrors used in AO are nonlinear, and the fact that in general the wavefront errors of the eye can be(More)
We constructed a high speed and high-resolution Stokes vector retinal imaging polarimeter with dual electro-optical modulators based on adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. By varying the voltages on the EO crystals line by line, we were able to measure over 500,000 Stokes vectors per second. We used this system in three human subjects(More)
We discuss error propagation in the slope-based and the difference-based wavefront estimations. The error propagation coefficient can be expressed as a function of the eigenvalues of the wavefront-estimation-related matrices, and we establish such functions for each of the basic geometries with the serial numbering scheme with which a square sampling grid(More)
An iterative zonal wave-front estimation algorithm for slope or gradient-type data in optical testing acquired with regular or irregular pupil shapes is presented. In the mathematical model proposed, the optical surface, or wave-front shape estimation, which may have any pupil shape or size, shares a predefined wave-front estimation matrix that we(More)
An ophthalmic adaptive optics (AO) imaging system is especially affected by pupil edge effects due to the higher noise and aberration level at the edge of the human pupil as well as the impact of head and eye motions on the pupil. In this paper, a two-step approach was proposed and implemented for reducing the edge effects and improving wavefront slope(More)
The concept of a differential Shack-Hartmann (DSH) curvature sensor was recently proposed, which yields wavefront curvatures by measuring wavefront slope differentials. As an important feature of the DSH curvature sensor, the wavefront twist curvature terms can be efficiently obtained from slope differential measurements, thus providing a means to measure(More)