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In the present study, 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into forced swim stress group and controls, with 20 rats in each group (10 for behavioral tests, 10 for protein detection). The forced swim stress group received swim stress for 14 consecutive days, and the controls were stress-free. After stress, 20 rats were tested for behavioral observation using(More)
Our previous research indicates that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cyclic AMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB) signal system may be involved in the molecular mechanism of depression. The present study further investigated the effect of antidepressant fluoxetine on the ERK-CREB signal system and the depressive-like behaviors in(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), the stress-related neuropeptide, acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain norepinephrine nucleus, locus coeruleus (LC), to activate this system during stress. CRF shifts the mode of LC discharge from a phasic to a high tonic state that is thought to promote behavioral flexibility. To investigate this, the effects of CRF(More)
Our recent research demonstrates that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway is impaired in depressed animals, and such disruption is effectively reversed following antidepressant treatment. These results indicate that the ERK pathway may participate in the molecular mechanism of depression. To provide direct evidence for the(More)
Isolation rearing induces profound behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in rodents. However, there is some controversy regarding the effect of isolation rearing on social behaviors and monoamine neurotransmission in mesolimbic and mesocortical areas. In the current study, we aimed to address these issues and demonstrated that isolation rearing from(More)
Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peri-adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition (LI) and dopamine D2 receptor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of young adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into adolescent(More)
Maternal immune activation (MIA) produces a variety of behavioral and brain abnormalities in rodent models of several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it remains controversial whether MIA impairs reversal learning, a basic function of flexibility relevant to those diseases, in offspring. In the present study, we used the Morris water maze to investigate(More)
Immune responses can be modulated by Pavlovian conditioning techniques. In this study, to evaluate the conditionability of antibody response via a single-trial conditioning paradigm, we used a protein antigen ovalbumin as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that was paired with a novel taste of saccharin in a single-trial learning protocol. A significant(More)
As an adverse early life experience, maternal separation (MS) induces profound neurochemical, cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Previous studies have reported that MS affected prepulse inhibition (PPI), anxiety-related behaviors, dopaminergic and serotonergic activity in adult rats, and in the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated(More)
The objective of this study is to design a robot system to assist the rehabilitation of patients so that they can afterwards do various daily activities. It is difficult to determine the desirable posture of a 9-DOFs exoskeleton manipulator in such a system and each joint control design as well. In this paper, we resolve the difficulties by mapping the(More)