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Transcription factors (TFs) and their specific interactions with targets are crucial for specifying gene-expression programs. To gain insights into the transcriptional regulatory networks in embryonic stem (ES) cells, we use chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with ultra-high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) to map the locations of 13(More)
Oct4 and Nanog are transcription factors required to maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Using the chromatin immunoprecipitation paired-end ditags method, we mapped the binding sites of these factors in the mouse ES cell genome. We identified 1,083 and 3,006 high-confidence binding sites for Oct4 and Nanog, respectively.(More)
Limits on the storage capacity of working memory significantly affect cognitive abilities in a wide range of domains, but the nature of these capacity limits has been elusive. Some researchers have proposed that working memory stores a limited set of discrete, fixed-resolution representations, whereas others have proposed that working memory consists of a(More)
In this paper, we introduce background cut, a high quality and realtime foreground layer extraction algorithm. From a single video sequence with a moving foreground object and stationary background, our algorithm combines background subtraction, color and contrast cues to extract a foreground layer accurately and efficiently. The key idea in background cut(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells with the ability to self-renew indefinitely. These unique properties are controlled by genetic factors and chromatin structure. The exit from the self-renewing state is accompanied by changes in epigenetic chromatin modifications such as an induction in the silencing-associated histone H3 Lys 9 dimethylation(More)
The dominant effect of transcription factors in imparting expanded potency is best exemplified by the reprogramming of fibroblasts to pluripotent cells using retrovirus-mediated transduction of defined transcription factors. In the murine system, Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4 are sufficient to convert fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells with self-renewing property. Nanog is a homeobox transcription factor required to maintain ES cells in a non-differentiated state. Using affinity purification coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we identified Sall4 as a Nanog co-purified protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and(More)
General Douglas MacArthur remarked that "old soldiers never die; they just fade away." For decades, researchers have concluded that visual working memories, like old soldiers, fade away gradually, becoming progressively less precise as they are retained for longer periods of time. However, these conclusions were based on threshold-estimation procedures in(More)
It is widely believed that attention selects locations at an earlier stage than it selects nonspatial features, but this has been tested only under conditions of minimal competition. We found that, when competition was increased, color-based attention was able to influence the feedforward flow of information in humans within 100 ms of stimulus onset, even(More)
Visual working memory (VWM) wa sexplored separatelyfor features and for their binding. Features were better recognized when the probes retained the same binding as in the original display, but changing the locations had little effect overall. However, there were strong interactions of location with binding and with matching or new features, suggesting that,(More)