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The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) receives inputs from both arterial chemoreceptors and central noradrenergic neural structures activated during hypoxia. We investigated norepinephrine (NE) modulation of chemoreceptor afferent integration after a chronic exposure to sustained hypoxia (CSH) (7-8 d at 10% FIO(2)). Whole-cell recordings of NTS(More)
The selective gamma-aminobutyric acid B-subtype receptor agonist baclofen activates both presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors in the brain. Microinjection of baclofen into the nucleus of the solitary tract increases arterial pressure, heart rate, and sympathetic nerve discharge consistent with inhibition of the arterial baroreflex. The magnitude of these(More)
The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the primary site of termination of arterial baroreceptor and chemoreceptor afferent fibers. Excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors within NTS have been shown to play an important role in the mediation of arterial baroreceptor reflexes; however, the importance of EAA receptors within NTS in the mediation of arterial(More)
To determine the role of excitatory amino-acid (EAA) receptors in afferent evoked excitation of neurons in the nucleus of the solitarius (NTS), responses of NTS neurons to activation of visceral afferent inputs were examined before and during iontophoretic application of the broad spectrum EAA receptor antagonist kynurenate (KYN). Iontophoretic application(More)
Activation of neuronal ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels is an important mechanism that protects neurons and conserves neural function during hypoxia. We investigated hypoxia (bath gassed with 95% N(2)-5% CO(2) vs. 95% O(2)-5% CO(2) in control)-induced changes in K(ATP) current in second-order neurons of peripheral chemoreceptors in the nucleus of(More)
Norepinephrine (NE) is an important neurotransmitter in central autonomic regulation. Peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation activates central noradrenergic structures. These structures innervate and therefore could modulate neurons in caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS), which receives the first central projections from peripheral chemoreceptors.(More)
Microinjection of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid B-subtype receptor agonist baclofen into the nucleus tractus solitarius increases arterial blood pressure and sympathetic nerve discharge. The baclofen-induced pressor response is enhanced in chronic hypertension. We hypothesized that a postsynaptic mechanism contributes to the(More)
A daptive changes have long been recognized to occur in the heart and vasculature in response to chronic hyper-tension. What might be less well-appreciated is the fact that chronically increased blood pressure is also associated with adaptive changes in neurons within the central nervous system (CNS). Changes in the properties of ligand-gated and(More)
Activation of neuronal ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP) channels is an important mechanism that protects neurons and conserves neural function during hypoxia. We investigated hypoxia (bath gassed with 95% N 2 /5% CO 2 vs. 95% O 2 /5% CO 2 in control) induced changes in K ATP current in second-order neurons of peripheral chemoreceptors in the nucleus of the(More)
2,3-Butanedione-monoxime (BDM) inhibits tension development in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. Experiments on isolated single fibres of frog-muscle have shown a use dependent intermittent failure of twitching during continued stimulation. Our analysis of the effect of BDM on rabbit liver mitochondria and submitochondrial particles revealed a reduction(More)