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Software testing is a labor-intensive task in software development life-cycle. Human knowledge is useful in the practices of software testing, especially GUI testing. There are many strategies for GUI testing assisted by human knowledge, in which manual random testing and manual functional testing are two of widely used ones. In this paper, an empirical(More)
Test case prioritization techniques are proposed to schedule execution of test cases in order to improve testing effectiveness. Various coverage criteria are used as surrogates for test case prioritization. They are expected to improve testing effectiveness by satisfying the surrogates as early as possible. In test case prioritization, statement coverage is(More)
Existing technologies to produce liquid fuels from biomass are typically energy-intensive, multistep processes. Many of these processes use edible biomass as starting material. Carbohydrates, such as mono- and polysaccharides and cellulose, typically constitute 50-80% of plant biomass. Herein, we report that hexose from a wide range of biomass-derived(More)
HI returns: Hydroiodic acid is a highly selective reducing reagent for a wide variety of substrates. Its application is limited by the formation of iodine and the difficulty in reconverting that iodione back to HI in situ. We report the facile conversion of I(2) to HI by metal-catalyzed hydrogenation in the presence of water, and demonstrate the utility of(More)
Carbohydrates, such as fructose, can be fully dehydroxylated to 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (DMTHF), a valuable chemical and potential gasoline substitute, by the use of a dual catalytic system consisting of HI and RhX(3) (X=Cl, I). A mechanistic study has been carried out to understand the roles that both acid and metal play in the reaction. HI serves a(More)
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