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Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is originally developed as an unconstrained optimization technique, therefore lacks an explicitmechanism for handling constraints.When solving constrained optimization problems (COPs) with PSO, the existing research mainly focuses on how to handle constraints, and the impact of constraints on the inherent search mechanism(More)
This paper firstly presents a novel constraint-handling technique , called dynamicobjective method (DOM), based on the search mechanism of the particles of particle swarm optimization (PSO). DOM converts the constrained optimization problem into a bi-objective optimization problem, and then enables each particle to dynamically adjust its objectives(More)
Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe) in surface sediments from nine sites in western Xiamen Bay and its vicinity were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to urbanization and economic development in Xiamen, China. The sediment samples were collected in December 2004 and July 2005 respectively in(More)
Strigolactones (SLs), a newly discovered class of carotenoid-derived phytohormones, are essential for developmental processes that shape plant architecture and interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite the rapid progress in elucidating the SL biosynthetic pathway, the perception and signalling mechanisms of SL(More)
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BACKGROUND China is realizing increases in women engaged in premarital sex and multiple sex partner behavior. Our aim was to examine prevalence and determinants of multiple sex partner behavior among female undergraduates in China. METHODS Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 unmarried female undergraduates, recruited using(More)
Inhibition of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B function can lead to serious clinical drug-drug interactions, thus a thorough evaluation of the potential for this type of interaction must be completed during drug development. Therefore, sensitive and specific biomarkers for OATP function that could be used in conjunction with clinical studies(More)
Previous studies have shown that DWARF10 (D10) is a rice ortholog of MAX4/RMS1/DAD1, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and functioning in strigolactones/strigolactone-derivatives (SL) biosynthesis. Here we use D10- RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants similar to d10 mutant in phenotypes to investigate the interactions among D10, auxin and(More)
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as chlorinated pesticides are of global concern due to their widespread occurrence, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity to animals and human. This paper summarises recent research on 18 chlorinated pesticides in an important catchment in China, by determining their concentrations and behaviour in water,(More)
Shellfish samples were collected from the coastal cultivating areas of east Xiamen Island and Minjing Estuary, China and analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by GC. Concentration ranges of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in the coastal area of east Xiamen Island were 0.18-345, 75.2-2143 and ND-23 ng g(-1) dry wt.,(More)