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Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is originally developed as an unconstrained optimization technique, therefore lacks an explicit mechanism for handling constraints. When solving constrained optimization problems (COPs) with PSO, the existing research mainly focuses on how to handle constraints, and the impact of constraints on the inherent search mechanism(More)
Strigolactones (SLs), a newly discovered class of carotenoid-derived phytohormones, are essential for developmental processes that shape plant architecture and interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite the rapid progress in elucidating the SL biosynthetic pathway, the perception and signalling mechanisms of SL(More)
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Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe) in surface sediments from nine sites in western Xiamen Bay and its vicinity were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to urbanization and economic development in Xiamen, China. The sediment samples were collected in December 2004 and July 2005 respectively in(More)
Previous studies have shown that DWARF10 (D10) is a rice ortholog of MAX4/RMS1/DAD1, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and functioning in strigolactones/strigolactone-derivatives (SL) biosynthesis. Here we use D10- RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants similar to d10 mutant in phenotypes to investigate the interactions among D10, auxin and(More)
Phytohormones act at relatively low concentrations as major regulatory factors of plant growth and development, and cross talk of phytohormones is currently of great interest throughout the plant science community. To meet this demand, a method that is capable of simultaneously analyzing diverse plant hormones is essential. This paper introduces a(More)
The present paper introduces a highly sensitive and selective method for simultaneous quantification of 12 cytokinins (free form and their conjugates). The method includes a protocol of extraction with methanol/water/formic acid (15/4/1, v/v/v) to the micro-scale samples, pre-purification with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges of the extracts,(More)
AIM To further explore the mechanism underlying the interaction between repaglinide and gemfibrozil, alone or in combination with itraconazole. METHODS Repaglinide metabolism was assessed in vitro (human liver subcellular fractions, fresh human hepatocytes, and recombinant enzymes) and the resulting incubates were analyzed, by liquid chromatography-mass(More)
The ratio of auxin and cytokinin plays a crucial role in regulating aerial architecture by promoting or repressing axillary bud outgrowth. We have previously identified an Arabidopsis mutant bud2 that displays altered root and shoot architecture, which results from the loss-of-function of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 4 (SAMDC4). In this study, we(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) system in the surgical management of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in pseudophakic children. METHODS Pars plana membranectomy was performed for PCO in 10 pseudophakic eyes of six children (mean age 35.1 +/- 37.8 months; range 6-93 months)(More)