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The progressive, neurodegenerative process underlying idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with the formation of proteinaceous inclusion bodies that involve a few susceptible neuronal types of the human nervous system. In the lower brain stem, the process begins in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve and advances from there essentially(More)
A unifying feature of many neurodegenerative disorders is the accumulation of polyubiquitinated protein inclusions in dystrophic neurons, e.g. containing alpha-synuclein, which is suggestive of an insufficient proteasomal activity. We demonstrate that alpha-synuclein and 20 S proteasome components co-localize in Lewy bodies and show that subunits from 20 S(More)
Aggregation of the nerve cell protein alpha-synuclein is a characteristic of the common neurodegenerative alpha-synucleinopathies like Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia, and it plays a direct pathogenic role as demonstrated by early onset diseases caused by mis-sense mutations and multiplication of the alpha-synuclein gene. We investigated the(More)
Intracellular inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (alpha SN) are pathognomonic features of several neurodegenerative disorders. Inclusions occur in oligodendrocytes in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and in neurons in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to identify disease-associated changes of alpha SN, this study(More)
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) belongs to synucleinopathies and is characterized pathologically by oligodendroglial inclusions (GCIs) composed of 20- to 30-nm tubular filaments. alpha-Synuclein fibrils formed in vitro, however, range between 10 and 12 nm in diameter. To understand the relationship between alpha-synuclein and GCI filaments, we conducted(More)
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive ataxia and neuronal nuclear inclusions (NIs), similar to the inclusions found in expanded CAG repeat diseases. NIID may be familial or sporadic. The cause of familial NIID is poorly understood, as no CAG expansion has been detected. We examined(More)
The septins are GTPase enzymes with multiple roles in cytokinesis, cell polarity or exocytosis. The proteins from the mammalian septin genes are called Sept1-10. Most are expressed in multiple tissues, but the mRNA for Sept5 (CDCrel-1) and Sept3 (G-septin) appear to be primarily expressed in brain. Sept3 is phosphorylated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase I(More)
Lewy bodies are made from insoluble, phosphorylated α-synuclein, but the earliest changes that precipitate such pathology still remain conjecture. In this study, we quantify and identify relationships between the levels of the main pathologic form of phosphorylated α-synuclein over the course of Parkinson’s disease in regions affected early through to(More)
Certain genetic defects in LRRK2 and parkin are pathogenic for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and both proteins deposit in the characteristic Lewy bodies. LRRK2 is thought to be involved in the early initiation of Lewy bodies. The involvement of LRRK2 and parkin in the similar cellular deposition of fibrillar α-synuclein in glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCI) in(More)