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BACKGROUND & AIMS Polymorphisms in the IL28B gene have been associated with clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV), indicating a role for type III interferons (IFNs) in HCV infection. Little is known about the function of type III IFNs in intrinsic antiviral innate immunity. METHODS We used in vivo and in vitro models to characterize the role of the type(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system has recently emerged as a major target for drug development in cancer therapy. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has clinical activity in multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Here we report that Eeyarestatin I (EerI), a chemical inhibitor that blocks endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation, has(More)
We studied the source, concentration, spatial distribution and health risk of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils of Beijing. The total mass concentration of 16 PAHs ranged from 93 to 13,141 μg kg(-1) with a mean of 1228 μg kg(-1). The contour map of soil PAH concentrations showed that the industrial zone, the historical Hutong(More)
Imbalances in glucose and energy homeostasis are at the core of the worldwide epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Here, we illustrate an important role of the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway in regulating glucose and energy homeostasis. Smad3-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Interestingly, the metabolic protection is(More)
Leptin has been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of body weight. There is also evidence that this adipokine plays a key role in the process of osteoarthritis. However, the precise role of leptin on articular cartilage metabolism is not clear. We investigate the role of leptin on articular cartilage in vivo in this study. Recombinant rat leptin(More)
Mammary alveologenesis is abrogated in the absence of the transcription factors STAT5A/5B, which mediate cytokine signaling. To reveal the underlying causes for this developmental block, we studied mammary stem and progenitor cells. While loss of STAT5A/5B did not affect the stem cell population and its ability to form mammary ducts, luminal progenitors(More)
BACKGROUND Protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has recently emerged as a therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Disruption of ER homeostasis results in ER stress, which is a major cause of cell death in cells exposed to the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, an anti-cancer drug approved for treatment of multiple myeloma and Mantle cell(More)
Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is an established imaging technique to assess brain glucose utilisation, accurate measurement of tracer concentration is confounded by the presence of partial volume effect (PVE) due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, which is particularly true in atrophic brains such as those encountered in patients with(More)
UNLABELLED The reasons for hepatitis C treatment failure remain unknown but may be related to different host responses to therapy. In this study, we compared hepatic gene expression in patients prior to and during peginterferon and ribavirin therapy. In the on-treatment group, patients received either ribavirin for 72 hours prior to peginterferon alpha-2a(More)
UNLABELLED Growth hormone controls many facets of a cell's biology through the transcription factors Stat5a and Stat5b (Stat5). However, whole body deletion of these genes from the mouse does not provide portentous information on cell-specific cytokine signaling. To explore liver-specific functions of Stat5, the entire Stat5 locus was deleted in hepatocytes(More)