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As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people's spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper(More)
Two independent pepper (Capsicum annuum) genomes were published recently, opening a new era of molecular genetics research on pepper. However, pepper molecular marker technologies are still mainly focusing on the simple sequence repeats derived from public database or genomic library. The development and application of the third generation marker system(More)
A straightforward and efficient protocol for the construction of structurally and biologically interesting chiral flavanoids incorporating three privileged structures, i.e., chromanone, dihydropyran, and indole, has been developed on the basis of chiral bifunctional tertiary amine thiourea-catalyzed asymmetric inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of(More)
CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are two thymus-derived subsets of regulatory T cells that play an important role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. Yet the functional changes of the two subsets of regulatory T cells in the development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice remain unclear, and how(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between c-fos gene and filamentous actin (F-actin) in MG-63 osteoblasts under cyclic tensile stress. METHODS MG-63 osteoblasts were subjected to cyclic tensile stress (0.5 Hz, 2 000 microstrain) for 3, 6, and 12 h. The changes of c-fos gene were investigated by fluorescent quantitation polymerase chain reaction.(More)
The metallorganic chemical vapor deposition method was successfully used to synthesize pure TiO(2) and Nd(3+)-, Pd(2+)-, Pt(4+)-, and Fe(3+)-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles. Polycrystalline TiO(2) structure was verified with x-ray diffraction, which showed typical characteristic anatase reflections without any separate dopant-related peaks. Transmission electron(More)
Anything between ureas? Spiro[isoxazolidine-3,3'-oxindole]s have been constructed by employing methyleneindolinones and nitrones as the starting materials through [3+2] annulation catalyzed by a bisthiourea. Products with three contiguous stereocenters, including one spiroquaternary stereocenter, are obtained in good yields with excellent enantio- and(More)
Carbon-carbon bond formation: A highly efficient method for the oxo-hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 2-oxoindolin-3-ylidenes based on chiral calcium phosphate is described. In general, adducts were obtained with high yields and excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to 96 % yield, >99:1 endo/exo, >99 % ee; see scheme, Boc = tert-butoxycarbonyl).
A silver-catalyzed cascade cyclization of cinnamamides with diphenylphosphine oxide was developed, in which activation of the P-H bond and functionalization of the C(sp(2))-H bond occurred. A direct method for the synthesis of 3,4-disubstituted dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-ones was developed.