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Accumulation of the amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) in the cerebral cortex is an early and invariant event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The final step in the generation of Abeta from the beta-amyloid precursor protein is an apparently intramembranous proteolysis by the elusive gamma-secretase(s). The most common cause of familial Alzheimer's(More)
Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) aggregate in senile plaque is a key characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we show that phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) on threonine 668 (P-APP) may play a role in APP metabolism. In AD brains, P-APP accumulates in large vesicular structures in afflicted hippocampal pyramidal neurons that costain(More)
Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes to cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS). We used Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models of DS to show that the increased dose of the amyloid precursor protein gene, App, acts to markedly decrease NGF retrograde transport and cause degeneration of BFCNs. NGF(More)
We studied a novel function of the presenilins (PS1 and PS2) in governing capacitative calcium entry (CCE), a refilling mechanism for depleted intracellular calcium stores. Abrogation of functional PS1, by either knocking out PS1 or expressing inactive PS1, markedly potentiated CCE, suggesting a role for PS1 in the modulation of CCE. In contrast, familial(More)
It has long been assumed that the C-terminal motif, NPXY, is the internalization signal for beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and that the NPXY tyrosine (Tyr743 by APP751 numbering, Tyr682 in APP695) is required for APP endocytosis. To evaluate this tenet and to identify the specific amino acids subserving APP endocytosis, we mutated all tyrosines in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of sevoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on apoptosis and beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) levels in vitro and in vivo. Subjects Naive mice, H4 human neuroglioma cells, and H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein. INTERVENTIONS Human H4 neuroglioma(More)
Neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau and neuritic plaques comprising amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta) derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP), but their exact relationship remains elusive. Phosphorylation of tau and APP on certain serine or threonine residues preceding proline affects tangle(More)
Ordered assembly of the amyloid-beta protein (A beta) into amyloid fibrils is a critical step in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To release the amyloidogenic peptide A beta from the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP), two secretases act sequentially: first, beta-secretase cleaves close to the membrane within the ectodomain and then gamma-secretase cuts(More)
Gamma-secretase cleavage, mediated by a complex of presenilin, presenilin enhancer (Pen-2), nicastrin, and Aph-1, is the final proteolytic step in generating amyloid beta protein found in brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and Notch intracellular domain critical for proper neuronal development. Here, we employ the zebrafish model to study the role of(More)
Mutations in presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 (PS1 and PS2) are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer disease. PS1 and PS2 are the presumptive catalytic components of the multisubunit gamma-secretase complex, which proteolyzes a number of type I transmembrane proteins, including the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Notch. APP processing by(More)