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Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) aggregate in senile plaque is a key characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we show that phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) on threonine 668 (P-APP) may play a role in APP metabolism. In AD brains, P-APP accumulates in large vesicular structures in afflicted hippocampal pyramidal neurons that costain(More)
Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes to cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS). We used Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models of DS to show that the increased dose of the amyloid precursor protein gene, App, acts to markedly decrease NGF retrograde transport and cause degeneration of BFCNs. NGF(More)
Presenilin-1 (PS1) is the major gene responsible for early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). To understand the normal function of PS1, we have generated a targeted null mutation in the murine homolog of PS1. We report that PS1-/- mice die shortly after natural birth or Caesarean section. The skeleton of homozygous mutants is grossly deformed.(More)
We studied a novel function of the presenilins (PS1 and PS2) in governing capacitative calcium entry (CCE), a refilling mechanism for depleted intracellular calcium stores. Abrogation of functional PS1, by either knocking out PS1 or expressing inactive PS1, markedly potentiated CCE, suggesting a role for PS1 in the modulation of CCE. In contrast, familial(More)
Neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau and neuritic plaques comprising amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta) derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP), but their exact relationship remains elusive. Phosphorylation of tau and APP on certain serine or threonine residues preceding proline affects tangle(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of sevoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on apoptosis and beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) levels in vitro and in vivo. Subjects Naive mice, H4 human neuroglioma cells, and H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein. INTERVENTIONS Human H4 neuroglioma(More)
Gamma-secretase cleavage, mediated by a complex of presenilin, presenilin enhancer (Pen-2), nicastrin, and Aph-1, is the final proteolytic step in generating amyloid beta protein found in brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and Notch intracellular domain critical for proper neuronal development. Here, we employ the zebrafish model to study the role of(More)
The anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to induce apoptosis and increase Abeta generation and aggregation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown. We therefore set out to assess whether the effects of isoflurane on apoptosis are linked to amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) generation and aggregation. For this purpose, we(More)
Perioperative factors including hypoxia, hypocapnia, and certain anesthetics have been suggested to contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathogenesis. Desflurane is one of the most commonly used inhalation anesthetics. However, the effects of desflurane on AD neuropathogenesis have not been previously determined. Here, we set out to assess the effects(More)