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This paper describes the concept of sensor networks which has been made viable by the convergence of microelectro-mechanical systems technology, wireless communications and digital electronics. First, the sensing tasks and the potential sensor networks applications are explored, and a review of factors influencing the design of sensor networks is provided.(More)
In the near future, small intelligent devices will be deployed in homes, plantations, oceans, rivers, streets, and highways to monitor the environment. These devices require time synchronization, so voice and video data from different sensor nodes can be fused and displayed in a meaningful way at the sink. Instead of time synchronization between just the(More)
The developments in the space technologies are enabling the realization of deep space scientific missions such as Mars exploration. InterPlaNetary (IPN) Internet is expected to be the next step in the design and development of deep space networks as the Internet of the deep space planetary networks. However, there exist significant challenges to be(More)
Cross-layer design and optimization is a new technique which can be used to design and improve the performance in both wireless and wireline networks. The central idea of cross-layer design is to optimize the control and exchange of information over two or more layers to achieve significant performance improvements by exploiting the interactions between(More)
One of the main problems that affect the data integrity of passive RFID systems is the collision between the tags. A popular anticollision algorithm which dominates the standards in HF and UHF passive RFID systems is framed slotted Aloha (FSA) and some variations of FSA. Throughput and average time delay of the RFID system which determines the(More)
Preserving the consumed energy of each node for increasing the network lifetime is an important goal that must be considered when developing a routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. The main objective of cluster-based routing protocol is to efficiently maintain the energy consumption of sensor nodes by involving them in multi-hop communication(More)
Large scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as the latest trend in revolutionizing the paradigm of collecting and processing data in diverse environments. Its advancement is fueled by development of tiny low cost sensor nodes which are capable of sensing, processing and transmitting data. Due to the small size of sensor nodes there are various(More)
Wireless Sensor Networks have limited resources with traditional data gathering techniques. One of the limitations of wireless sensor nodes is its inherent limited energy resource. Therefore, designing an effective wireless sensor network to maximizing the lifetime of sensor node in order to minimize maintenance and maximize overall system performance(More)