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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved signal transduction pathways in all eukaryotic organisms. MAPKKKs (MAPK kinase kinases) operate at the top levels of these cascades. Recently, this family of genes has been systematically investigated in Arabidopsis, rice and maize, but has not yet been characterized in cotton. In this study, we(More)
We report the observation of a square superlattice pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge system. The correlation measurements indicate that the square superlattice pattern is an interleaving of two different transient square sublattices. The interplay between the charge pattern and the discharge filament pattern is discussed.
A rich variety of spiral patterns such as single-armed spiral, dipole spirals, target pattern, multiarmed spiral, and spiral defect chaos state have been observed in ac-driven atmospheric pressure gas discharge. The confined and free boundary conditions are defined by means of whether there is a sidewall in the discharge domain or not, respectively. In the(More)
We report on the observation of a hexagonal superlattice state (HSS) in dielectric barrier discharge in air/argon near atmospheric pressure. It bifurcates directly from the hexagonal state by increasing the applied voltage. The correlation measurements indicate that the HSS is an interleaving of three different transient sublattices. The spatial power(More)
Salinity stress is a major abiotic factor that affects crop output, and as a pioneer crop in saline and alkaline land, salt tolerance study of cotton is particularly important. In our experiment, four salt-tolerance varieties with different salt tolerance indexes including CRI35 (65.04%), Kanghuanwei164 (56.19%), Zhong9807 (55.20%) and CRI44 (50.50%), as(More)
We report on the observation of a white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as follows: random spots-quasihexagonal pattern-hexagonal pattern (type I)-hexagonal pattern (type II)-white-eye pattern-chaos, as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the patterned discharges(More)
We report on the collective vibration of discharge current filaments in a self-organized superlattice pattern within an air-argon dielectric barrier discharge system. The period of collective vibration decreases as the air content increases. An antisymmetric normal vibration mode of discharge current filaments is observed. The measurements of the(More)
Several spatiotemporal patterns: random spots, hexagon pattern, coexistences of hexagon and square pattern, and square pattern are obtained in dielectric barrier discharge system while increasing the voltage with other parameters fixed. By using image processing including spatial correlation function and Fourier spectrum, the structures of patterns and the(More)
A series of periodic spatiotemporal patterns are presented in air dielectric barrier discharge, which undergo the evolvement sequence from random spots--hexagon pattern--white-eye pattern-chaos, when increasing the applied voltage. By using image processing method, including the Fast Fourier Transform, read and display technique, the structures of different(More)
We report on a honeycomb hexagon pattern in dielectric barrier discharge. It bifurcates from a square pattern as the applied voltage is increased. A phase diagram of the pattern types as a function of the gas component and applied voltage is presented. The spatial Fourier spectrum of the honeycomb hexagon pattern is a hexagonal superstructure with three(More)