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Cell walls are crucial for development, signal transduction, and disease resistance in plants. Cell walls are made of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins. Xyloglucan (XG), the principal load-bearing hemicellulose of dicotyledonous plants, has a terminal fucosyl residue. A 60-kilodalton fucosyltransferase (FTase) that adds this residue was purified from(More)
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy in which no mutation of pathogenic gene(s) has been identified. Instead, the disease is, in most cases, genetically linked to a contraction in the number of 3.3 kb D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4q. How contraction of the 4qter D4Z4 repeats causes muscular dystrophy is not(More)
Pea microsomes contain an alpha-fucosyltransferase that incorporates fucose from GDP-fucose into xyloglucan, adding it preferentially to the 2-O-position of the galactosyl residue closest to the reducing end of the repeating subunit. This enzyme was solubilized with detergent and purified by affinity chromatography on GDP-hexanolamine-agarose followed by(More)
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) fuel cancer-driving chromosome translocations. Two related structural maintenance of chromosomes (Smc) complexes, cohesin and Smc5/6, promote DSB repair through sister chromatid homologous recombination (SCR). Here we show that the Smc5/6 subunit Mms21 sumoylates multiple lysines of the cohesin subunit Scc1. Mms21 promotes(More)
The β-globin locus undergoes dynamic chromatin interaction changes in differentiating erythroid cells that are thought to be important for proper globin gene expression. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The CCCTC-binding factor, CTCF, binds to the insulator elements at the 5' and 3' boundaries of the locus, but these sites were shown to be(More)
Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) is a transcriptional repressor that directly binds to the methylated lysine 9 residue of histone H3 (H3K9me), which is a hallmark histone modification for transcriptionally silenced heterochromatin. Studies of homologs in different organisms have provided significant insight into the function of HP1 and the role of H3K9me.(More)
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most prevalent muscular dystrophies. The majority of FSHD cases are linked to a decreased copy number of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats on chromosome 4q (FSHD1). Less than 5% of FSHD cases have no repeat contraction (FSHD2), most of which are associated with mutations of SMCHD1. FSHD is associated with the(More)
Proteasome inhibitors are novel antitumor agents against multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Despite the increasing clinical application, the molecular basis of their antitumor effect has been poorly understood due to the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in multiple cellular metabolisms. Here, we show that treatment of cells with(More)
Myoblasts are precursor skeletal muscle cells that differentiate into fused, multinucleated myotubes. Current single-cell microfluidic methods are not optimized for capturing very large, multinucleated cells such as myotubes. To circumvent the problem, we performed single-nucleus transcriptome analysis. Using immortalized human myoblasts, we performed(More)
T-cell development from hematopoietic progenitors depends on multiple transcription factors, mobilized and modulated by intrathymic Notch signaling. Key aspects of T-cell specification network architecture have been illuminated through recent reports defining roles of transcription factors PU.1, GATA-3, and E2A, their interactions with Notch signaling, and(More)