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Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix architecture of the arterial wall. Although matrix metalloproteinases and serine proteases participate in these pathologic events, recent data from atherosclerotic patients and animals suggest the participation of lysosomal cysteine proteases in(More)
The cysteine protease cathepsin L is one of the most potent mammalian elastases and collagenases, widely expressed at basal levels in most tested tissues and cell types, and regulated by pro-inflammatory stimuli. The inflammatory arterial diseases abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and atherosclerosis involve extensive vascular remodeling that requires(More)
The urban heat island describes the phenomenon that air/surface temperatures are higher in urban areas compared to their surrounding rural areas. Numerous studies have shown that increased percent cover of greenspace (PLAND) can significantly decrease land surface temperatures (LST). Fewer studies, however, have investigated the effects of configuration of(More)
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are probably the most diverse in structure and function among the various superfamilies of stress proteins. To explore the diverse functions of insect sHsps, six sHsp cDNAs were cloned from the midgut cDNA library of Spodoptera litura, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the conserved α-crystalline domains. The(More)
The liver is frequently challenged by surgery-induced metabolic overload, viruses or toxins, which induce the formation of reactive oxygen species. To determine the effect of oxidative stress on liver regeneration and to identify the underlying signaling pathways, we studied liver repair in mice lacking the Nrf2 transcription factor. In these animals,(More)
Atherosclerosis and diabetes are closely associated and both involve extensive degradation of the aortic elastin. Increased elastase activity has been detected in diabetic animal aortae. We have demonstrated enhanced elastolytic cathepsin S in human atherosclerotic lesions but insufficient amounts of its endogenous inhibitor cystatin C, suggesting(More)
Conservation policies are increasing in response to human-induced ecosystem degradation, but little is known about their interplay with natural disasters. Through an analysis of satellite imagery and field data we evaluated the impacts of a devastating earthquake on forest recovery and avoided forest loss estimated to have been obtained by two of the(More)
Diapause, a state of arrested development accompanied by a marked decrease of metabolic rate, helps insects to overcome unfavorable seasons. Helicoverpa armigera (Har) undergoes pupal diapause, but the molecular mechanism of diapause initiation is unclear. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), we investigated differentially expressed genes in(More)
Plant species composition is a critical issue in ecological research. Studies on the characteristics of plant species composition in the built-up areas, however, are hampered by a lack of basic field-based investigation. In this article, the plant species composition in the built-up areas of Beijing, China, is investigated using abundant field observations.(More)