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The clinicopathological phenotype of the Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) variant linked to the codon 102 mutation in the prion protein (PrP) gene (GSS P102L) shows a high heterogeneity. This variability also is observed in subjects with the same prion protein gene PRNP haplotype and is independent from the duration of the disease. Immunoblot(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are supposed to play an important role in hypoxia- and ischemia/reperfusion-mediated neuronal injury with the characteristics of apoptosis. There are many reports showing that cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) could mimic the hypoxic responses in some aspects including production of ROS in cultured cells. The cytotoxicity of CoCl(2)(More)
Prion diseases are characterized by the presence of the abnormal prion protein PrP(Sc), which is believed to be generated by the conversion of the alpha-helical structure that predominates in the normal PrP isoform into a beta-sheet structure resistant to proteinase K (PK). In human prion diseases, two major types of PrP(Sc), type 1 and 2, can be(More)
BACKGROUND The increase of the 14-3-3 protein in CSF is used as a diagnostic test in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), but the sensitivity and specificity of the 14-3-3 test are disputed. One reason for the dispute may be the recently established heterogeneity of sporadic CJD. The relationship between CSF 14-3-3 protein and sporadic CJD subtypes,(More)
Interferons (IFNs) regulate diverse cellular functions through activation of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Lack of Ubp43, an IFN-inducible ISG15 deconjugating enzyme, leads to IFN hypersensitivity in ubp43-/- mice, suggesting an important function of Ubp43 in downregulation of IFN responses. Here, we(More)
The expression of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 and protein modification by ISG15 (ISGylation) are strongly activated by interferons. Accordingly, ISG15 expression and protein ISGylation are strongly activated upon viral and bacterial infections and during other stress conditions, suggesting important roles for the ISG15 system in innate immune(More)
Telomerase is a therapeutic target for cancer. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of the telomerase, is transcriptionaly upregulated exclusively in about 90% of cancer cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that hTERT promoter can control the expression of exogenous genes to the telomerase-positive cancer cells, thus(More)
In mammalian cells, DNA methylation critically regulates gene expression and thus has pivotal roles in myriad of physiological and pathological processes. Here we report a novel method for targeted DNA demethylation using the widely used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system. Initially, modified single guide RNAs(More)
The hallmark of prion diseases is the presence of an aberrant isoform of the prion protein (PrP(res)) that is insoluble in nondenaturing detergents and resistant to proteases. We investigated the allelic origin of PrP(res) in brains of subjects heterozygous for the D178N mutation linked to fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and a subtype of Creutzfeldt-Jakob(More)
Nearly every extracellular ligand that has been found to play a role in regulating bone biology acts, at least in part, through MAPK pathways. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the contribution of MAPKs to osteoblast biology in vivo. Here we report that the p38 MAPK pathway is required for normal skeletogenesis in mice, as mice with deletion of(More)