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We introduce CIBERSORT, a method for characterizing cell composition of complex tissues from their gene expression profiles. When applied to enumeration of hematopoietic subsets in RNA mixtures from fresh, frozen and fixed tissues, including solid tumors, CIBERSORT outperformed other methods with respect to noise, unknown mixture content and closely related(More)
Molecular profiles of tumors and tumor-associated cells hold great promise as biomarkers of clinical outcomes. However, existing data sets are fragmented and difficult to analyze systematically. Here we present a pan-cancer resource and meta-analysis of expression signatures from ∼18,000 human tumors with overall survival outcomes across 39 malignancies. By(More)
Activating protein 2alpha (AP-2alpha) is known to be expressed in the retina, and AP-2alpha-null mice exhibit defects in the developing optic cup, including patterning of the neural retina (NR) and a replacement of the dorsal retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) with NR. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial retinal expression patterns of(More)
The profusion of high-throughput instruments and the explosion of new results in the scientific literature, particularly in molecular biomedicine, is both a blessing and a curse to the bench researcher. Even knowledgeable and experienced scientists can benefit from computational tools that help navigate this vast and rapidly evolving terrain. In this paper,(More)
The AP-2alpha transcription factor is required for multiple aspects of vertebrate development and mice lacking the AP-2alpha gene (tcfap2a) die at birth from severe defects affecting the head and trunk. Several of the defects associated with the tcfap2a-null mutation affect neural crest cell (NCC) derivatives including the craniofacial skeleton, cranial(More)
Normal stem cells from a variety of tissues display unique metabolic properties compared to their more differentiated progeny. However, relatively little is known about metabolic properties of cancer stem cells, also called tumor initiating cells (TICs). In this study we show that, analogous to some normal stem cells, breast TICs have distinct metabolic(More)
Invertebrate and vertebrate vestigial (vg) and vestigial-like (VGLL) genes are involved in embryonic patterning and cell fate determination. These genes encode cofactors that interact with members of the Scalloped/TEAD family of transcription factors and modulate their activity. We have previously shown that, in mice, Vgll2 is differentially expressed in(More)
Failure of facial prominence fusion causes cleft lip and palate (CL/P), a common human birth defect. Several potential mechanisms can be envisioned that would result in CL/P, including failure of prominence growth and/or alignment as well as a failure of fusion of the juxtaposed epithelial seams. Here, using geometric morphometrics, we analyzed facial(More)
Members of the mammalian AP-2 transcription factor family have critical regulatory roles in many aspects of development and are also implicated in cancer progression. Four AP-2 genes have been previously characterized in mouse and human, encoding the AP-2alpha, AP-2beta, AP-2gamma, and AP-2delta proteins. Here we report the cloning and characterization of(More)
Currently, only patients with HER2-positive tumors are candidates for HER2-targeted therapies. However, recent clinical observations suggest that the survival of patients with HER2-low breast cancers, who lack HER2 amplification, may benefit from adjuvant therapy that targets HER2. In this study, we explored a mechanism through which these benefits may be(More)