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Theories regarding the evolution of spliceosomal introns differ in the extent to which the distribution of introns reflects either a formative role in the evolution of protein-coding genes or the adventitious gain of genetic elements. Here, systematic methods are used to assess the causes of the present-day distribution of introns in 10 families of(More)
Over 80% of reported cases of Lyme disease in the United States occur in coastal regions of northeastern and mid-Atlantic states. The genetic structure of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and its main tick vector (Ixodes scapularis) was studied concurrently and comparatively by sampling natural populations of I. scapularis ticks along the(More)
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic(More)
It has been known for decades that human Lyme disease is caused by the three spirochete species Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. Recently, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia bissettii have been associated with Lyme disease. We report the complete genome sequences of B. valaisiana VS116, B. spielmanii A14S,(More)
Large amounts of microarray expression data have been generated for the Apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in an effort to identify genes critical for virulence or developmental transitions. However, researchers’ ability to analyze this data is limited by the large number of unannotated genes, including many that appear to be conserved hypothetical(More)
Carotenoids play crucial roles in structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of bacteria, algae, and higher plants. The entry-step reaction to carotenoid biosynthesis is catalyzed by the phytoene synthase (PSY), which is structurally and functionally related in all organisms. A comparative genomic analysis regarding the PSY revealed that the(More)
The cell wall is a defining organelle that differentiates fungi from its sister clades in the opisthokont superkingdom. With a sensitive technique to align low-complexity protein sequences, we have identified 187 cell wall-related proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determined the presence or absence of homologs in 17 other fungal genomes. There were(More)
Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives(More)
The cell wall-bound Als adhesins of Candida albicans mediate both yeast-to-host tissue adherence and yeast aggregation. This aggregation is amyloid-like, with self-propagating secondary-structure changes, amyloid-characteristic dye binding, and induced birefringence (J. M. Rauceo, N. K. Gaur, K. G. Lee, J. E. Edwards, S. A. Klotz, and P. N. Lipke, Infect.(More)