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BACKGROUND On March 30, 2013, a novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus that infects human beings was identified. This virus had been detected in six provinces and municipal cities in China as of April 18, 2013. We correlated genomic sequences from avian influenza viruses with ecological information and did phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to extrapolate the(More)
Since its emergence in March 2009, the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health. To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. Phylogenetic(More)
Explicit evolutionary models are required in maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference, the two methods that are overwhelmingly used in phylogenetic studies of DNA sequence data. Appropriate selection of nucleotide substitution models is important because the use of incorrect models can mislead phylogenetic inference. To better understand the performance of(More)
Mitra is a scalable storage manager that supports the display of continuous media data types, e.g., audio and video clips. It is a software based system that employs off-the-shelf hardware components. Its present hardware platform is a cluster of multi-disk workstations, connected using an ATM switch. Mitra supports the display of a mix of media types. To(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has evolved into phylogenetically separable genotypes and subgenotypes. Accurately assigning the subgenotype for an HBV strain is of clinical and epidemiological significance. In this paper, we review the recommendations currently employed for HBV subgenotyping, the history of HBV subgenotyping, the effects of recombination on HBV(More)
Influenza A (H7N9) virus has been causing human infections in China since February 2013, raising serious concerns of potential pandemics. Previous studies demonstrate that human infection is directly linked to live animal markets, and that the internal genes of the virus are derived from H9N2 viruses circulating in the Yangtze River Delta area in Eastern(More)
The most widely used multiple sequence alignment methods require sequences to be clustered as an initial step. Most sequence clustering methods require a full distance matrix to be computed between all pairs of sequences. This requires memory and time proportional to N2 for N sequences. When N grows larger than 10,000 or so, this becomes increasingly(More)
Constant surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that pose a potential threat to public health. Through surveillance of LPMs from 16 provinces and municipalities in China during 2014-2016, we identified 3,174 AIV-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135(More)
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently(More)