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BACKGROUND On March 30, 2013, a novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus that infects human beings was identified. This virus had been detected in six provinces and municipal cities in China as of April 18, 2013. We correlated genomic sequences from avian influenza viruses with ecological information and did phylogenetic and coalescent analyses to extrapolate the(More)
Since its emergence in March 2009, the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has posed a serious threat to public health. To trace the evolutionary path of these new pathogens, we performed a selection-pressure analysis of a large number of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of H1N1 influenza viruses from different hosts. Phylogenetic(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has evolved into phylogenetically separable genotypes and subgenotypes. Accurately assigning the subgenotype for an HBV strain is of clinical and epidemiological significance. In this paper, we review the recommendations currently employed for HBV subgenotyping, the history of HBV subgenotyping, the effects of recombination on HBV(More)
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently(More)
Influenza A (H7N9) virus has been causing human infections in China since February 2013, raising serious concerns of potential pandemics. Previous studies demonstrate that human infection is directly linked to live animal markets, and that the internal genes of the virus are derived from H9N2 viruses circulating in the Yangtze River Delta area in Eastern(More)
In June 2013, the first human H6N1 influenza virus infection was confirmed in Taiwan. However, the origin and molecular characterization of this virus, A/Taiwan/2/2013 (H6N1), have not been well studied thus far. In the present report, we performed phylogenetic and coalescent analyses of this virus and compared its molecular profile/characteristics with(More)
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common infectious disease in young children and infants. EV71 can cause various clinical manifestations and has been associated with severe neurological complications; it has resulted in fatalities during recent outbreaks in Asian-Pacific regions(More)
A well-informed choice of genetic locus is central to the efficacy of DNA barcoding. Current DNA barcoding in animals involves the use of the 5' half of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (CO1) to diagnose and delimit species. However, there is no compelling a priori reason for the exclusive focus on this region, and it has been shown that it(More)
Recombination plays an important role in the evolutionary history of Hepatitis B virus (HBV). We performed a phylogenetic analysis of 3403 full-length HBV genome sequences isolated from humans to define the genotype. The genome sequences were divided into 13 sub-datasets, each approximately 250 bp in length. Genotype designations obtained from the(More)
The most widely used multiple sequence alignment methods require sequences to be clustered as an initial step. Most sequence clustering methods require a full distance matrix to be computed between all pairs of sequences. This requires memory and time proportional to N2 for N sequences. When N grows larger than 10,000 or so, this becomes increasingly(More)