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This study investigates the dispersal of the Hudson River outflow across the New York Bight and the adjacent inner-through midshelf region. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) simulations were used to examine the mean momentum dynamics; the freshwater dispersal pathways relevant to local biogeo-chemical processes; and the contribution from wind, remotely(More)
Adjoint sensitivity analysis is used to study the New York Bight circulation for three idealized situations: an unforced buoyant river plume, and upwelling and downwelling wind forcing. A derivation of adjoint sensitivity is presented that clarifies how the method simultaneously addresses initial, boundary, and forcing sensitivities. Considerations of(More)
Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. A set of integrated soil-crop system management practices(More)
The time scales on which river inflows disperse in the coastal ocean are relevant to a host of biogeochemical and environmental processes. These time scales are examined in a modeling study of the Hudson River plume on its entry to the New York Bight (NYB). Constituent-oriented age and residence-time theory is applied to compute two time scales: mean age,(More)
Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to produce a best-estimate analysis of ocean circulation in the New York Bight during spring 2006 by assimilating observations collected by a variety of instruments during an intensive field program. An incremental approach is applied in an overlapped(More)
As part of an effort to build an integrated observation and modeling system for the New York Bight, this study explores observing strategy evaluation using a representer-based method. The representer of a single observation describes the covariance between the observed quantity and ocean state errors at all locations at any time within the assimilation(More)
Two types of bipolar resistance switching with eightwise and counter eightwise polarities are observed to coexist in Au/SrTiO3/Ti memory cells. These two types of switching can be induced by different defect distributions which are activated by controlling the electric process. The analyses of I-V and C-V data reveal that the resistance switching with(More)
The Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3(NBT) thin films sandwiched between Au electrodes and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass were deposited using a sol-gel method. Based on electrochemical workstation measurements, reproducible resistance switching characteristics and negative differential resistances were obtained at room temperature. A local impedance(More)
[1] Mesoscale variability where the East Australian Current (EAC) separates from the coast is studied using sea surface temperature and surface velocity streamfunction observed by satellite and a regional numerical model. The mean circulation simulated by the model (the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)) is compared to a high-resolution regional(More)