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In the terrorist radiation exposure scenario, radiation victims are likely to suffer from additional injuries such as sepsis. Our previous studies have shown that ghrelin is protective in sepsis. However, it remains unknown whether ghrelin ameliorates sepsis-induced organ injury and mortality after radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to(More)
A systemic inflammatory response is observed in patients undergoing hemorrhagic shock and sepsis. Here we report increased levels of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in the blood of individuals admitted to the surgical intensive care unit with hemorrhagic shock. In animal models of hemorrhage and sepsis, CIRP is upregulated in the heart and liver(More)
RATIONALE Our study has shown that plasma levels of ghrelin, a stomach-derived peptide, are significantly reduced in sepsis, and that ghrelin administration improves organ blood flow via a nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-dependent pathway. However, it remains unknown whether ghrelin has any protective effects on severe sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and,(More)
BACKGROUND Norepinephrine (NE) modulates the responsiveness of macrophages to proinflammatory stimuli through the activation of adrenergic receptors (ARs). Being part of the stress response, early increases of NE in sepsis sustain adverse systemic inflammatory responses. The intestine is an important source of NE release in the early stage of cecal ligation(More)
Our previous studies have shown that norepinephrine (NE) upregulates proinflammatory cytokines by activating alpha(2)-adrenoceptor. Therefore, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system represents a novel treatment for sepsis. We have also shown that a novel stomach-derived peptide, ghrelin, is downregulated in sepsis and that its intravenous(More)
Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor factor 8 (MFG-E8) regulates innate immune function by modulating cellular signaling, which is less understood. Herein, we aimed to investigate the direct anti-inflammatory role of MFG-E8 in macrophages by pre-treatment with recombinant murine MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) followed by stimulation with LPS in RAW264.7 cells and in(More)
Endogenous molecules released by dying cells [i.e., damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)] after trauma and severe blood loss can activate pattern recognition receptors, leading to a cascade of inflammatory responses and organ injury. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a transcription factor for mitochondrial DNA. TFAM is structurally(More)
Excessive inflammation and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. MFG-E8 is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that has shown tissue protection in various models of organ injury. However, the potential role of MFG-E8 in cerebral ischemia has not been investigated. We found that levels of MFG-E8 protein in the brain were reduced at 24 h after(More)
BACKGROUND Gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious condition in intensive care patients. Activation of immune cells adjacent to the huge endothelial cell surface area of the intestinal microvasculature produces initially local and then systemic inflammatory responses. Stimulation of the vagus nerve can rapidly attenuate systemic inflammatory(More)
INTRODUCTION Prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis by caspase inhibition has been proposed as a novel treatment approach in sepsis. However, it has not been clearly demonstrated that caspase inhibitors improve survival in sepsis models when dosed post-insult. Also, there are concerns that caspase inhibitors might suppress the immune response. Here we(More)