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In sepsis, phagocytosis and the killing of bacteria by phagocytes are important. Similarly, the clearance of accumulating apoptotic cells is critical in maintaining normal immunity. Upon maturation, peritoneal macrophages (PM) become a major source of proinflammatory cytokines, while losing their efficacy of phagocytosis. However, the underlying mechanism(More)
In the terrorist radiation exposure scenario, radiation victims are likely to suffer from additional injuries such as sepsis. Our previous studies have shown that ghrelin is protective in sepsis. However, it remains unknown whether ghrelin ameliorates sepsis-induced organ injury and mortality after radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to(More)
A key aspect of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the increased occurrence of apoptotic cell death in the gut. Insufficient clearance of apoptotic cells leads to increased inflammation and impaired tissue repair. Our recent studies have shown that administration of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), a crucial molecule(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that administration of ghrelin attenuates inflammatory responses in sepsis through vagal nerve stimulation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Ghrelin has been demonstrated to possess multiple functions, including stimulation of the vagus nerve. Our recent study has shown that plasma levels of ghrelin were significantly reduced in(More)
RATIONALE Our study has shown that plasma levels of ghrelin, a stomach-derived peptide, are significantly reduced in sepsis, and that ghrelin administration improves organ blood flow via a nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-dependent pathway. However, it remains unknown whether ghrelin has any protective effects on severe sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and,(More)
A systemic inflammatory response is observed in patients undergoing hemorrhagic shock and sepsis. Here we report increased levels of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in the blood of individuals admitted to the surgical intensive care unit with hemorrhagic shock. In animal models of hemorrhage and sepsis, CIRP is upregulated in the heart and liver(More)
OBJECTIVE Although phytochemical curcumin has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, it remains unknown whether this agent has any beneficial effects in sepsis. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether curcumin protects septic animals and, if so, whether activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, an(More)
OBJECTIVES Severe sepsis is associated with increased total peripheral resistance (TPR) and decreased organ blood flow, in which endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role. Plasma levels of ghrelin, a newly-identified endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor and a potent vasodilatory peptide, are significantly reduced in sepsis. Ghrelin(More)
Our previous studies have shown that norepinephrine (NE) upregulates proinflammatory cytokines by activating alpha(2)-adrenoceptor. Therefore, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system represents a novel treatment for sepsis. We have also shown that a novel stomach-derived peptide, ghrelin, is downregulated in sepsis and that its intravenous(More)
OBJECTIVES We have recently shown that ghrelin, a novel orexigenic hormone, is reduced in sepsis. Ghrelin treatment, mediated through ghrelin receptors in the brain, attenuates sepsis-induced inflammation and mortality. Gut barrier dysfunction is common in sepsis. High-mobility group B1 (HMGB1) increases gut permeability both in vitro and in vivo. However,(More)