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Hypothalamic nuclei, including the anterior periventricular (aPV), paraventricular (PVN), and supraoptic (SON) nuclei strongly express the homeobox gene Orthopedia (Otp) during embryogenesis. Targeted inactivation of Otp in the mouse results in the loss of these nuclei in the homozygous null neonates. The Otp null hypothalamus fails to secrete neuropeptides(More)
Lymphocyte activation is accompanied by visible changes in chromatin structure. We find that antigen receptor signaling induces the rapid association of the BAF complex with chromatin. PIP2, which is regulated by activation stimuli, is sufficient in vitro to target the BAF complex to chromatin, but it has no effect on related chromatin remodeling complexes(More)
Mutations of MECP2 (Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2) cause Rett syndrome. As a chromatin-associated multifunctional protein, how MeCP2 integrates external signals and regulates neuronal function remain unclear. Although neuronal activity-induced phosphorylation of MeCP2 at serine 421 (S421) has been reported, the full spectrum of MeCP2 phosphorylation together(More)
In quiescent cells, mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by leakiness of the electron transport chain (ETC). High levels of ROS can trigger cell death, whereas lower levels drive diverse and important cellular functions. We show here by employing a newly developed mitochondrial matrix-targeted superoxide(More)
Recent findings suggest that Delta/Serrate/Lag2 (DSL) signals activate Notch by an unprecedented mechanism that requires the ligands to be endocytosed in signal-sending cells to activate the receptor in signal-receiving cells. Here, we show that cells devoid of Epsin, a conserved adaptor protein for Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, behave normally except that(More)
Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1, predispose individuals to breast and ovarian cancers. Using a combination of affinity- and conventional chromatographic techniques, we have isolated a predominant form of a multiprotein BRCA1-containing complex from human cells displaying chromatin-remodeling activity. Mass spectrometric sequencing of(More)
It has been observed that even highly optimized software programs perform " redundant " computations during their execution, due to the nature (statistics) of the values assumed by input or internal program variables. For embedded software running on battery-powered systems, such computations can be viewed as unnecessary energy overheads, and hence(More)
The Hmx homeobox gene family appears to play a conserved role in CNS development in all animal species examined, and in higher vertebrates has an additional role in sensory organ development. Here, we show that murine Hmx2 and Hmx3 have both overlapping and distinct functions in the development of the inner ear's vestibular system, whereas their functions(More)
Three homeobox genes, one from Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila Hmx gene) and two from mouse (murine Hmx2 and Hmx3) were isolated and the full-length cDNAs and corresponding genomic structures were characterized. The striking homeodomain similarity encoded by these three genes to previously identified genes in sea urchin, chick and human, as well as the(More)
Ligands of the Delta/Serrate/Lag2 (DSL) family must normally be endocytosed in signal-sending cells to activate Notch in signal-receiving cells. DSL internalization and signaling are promoted in zebrafish and Drosophila, respectively, by the ubiquitin ligases Mind bomb (Mib) and Neuralized (Neur). DSL signaling activity also depends on Epsin, a conserved(More)