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OBJECTIVES To evaluate the quality of preclinical evidence for mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) treatment of ischemic stroke, determine effect size of MSC therapy, and identify clinical measures that correlate with differences in MSC effects. METHODS A literature search identified studies of MSCs in animal models of cerebral ischemia. For each, a Quality(More)
Although ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, current therapies benefit only a small proportion of patients. Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC, also known as mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent stromal cells) has attracted attention as a regenerative therapy for numerous diseases, including stroke. Mesenchymal(More)
Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is an isothermal enzymatic process where a short DNA or RNA primer is amplified to form a long single stranded DNA or RNA using a circular DNA template and special DNA or RNA polymerases. The RCA product is a concatemer containing tens to hundreds of tandem repeats that are complementary to the circular template. The(More)
Systemically infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging therapeutics for treating stroke, acute injuries, and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), as well as brain tumors due to their regenerative capacity and ability to secrete trophic, immune modulatory, or other engineered therapeutic factors. It is hypothesized that(More)
Exogenous cell therapy aims to replace/repair diseased or dysfunctional cells and promises to revolutionize medicine by restoring tissue and organ function. To develop effective cell therapy, the location, distribution and long-term persistence of transplanted cells must be evaluated. Nanoparticle (NP) based imaging technologies have the potential to track(More)
The majority of bioassays utilize thermosensitive reagents (e.g., biomolecules) and laboratory conditions for analysis. The developing world, however, requires inexpensive, simple-to-perform tests that do not require refrigeration or access to highly trained technicians. To address this need, paper-based bioassays using gold nanoparticle (AuNP) colorimetric(More)
Monitoring the location, distribution and long-term engraftment of administered cells is critical for demonstrating the success of a cell therapy. Among available imaging-based cell tracking tools, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is advantageous due to its noninvasiveness, deep penetration, and high spatial resolution. While tracking cells in preclinical(More)
The delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a major challenge in part due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recently, cell-derived vesicles, particularly exosomes, have emerged as an attractive vehicle for targeting drugs to the brain, but whether or how they cross the BBB remains unclear. Here, we investigated(More)
Gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based colorimetric biosensing assays have recently attracted considerable attention in diagnostic applications due to their simplicity and versatility. This Minireview summarizes recent advances in this field and attempts to provide general guidance on how to design such assays. The key to the AuNP-based colorimetric sensing(More)
One of the greatest challenges in cell therapy is to minimally invasively deliver a large quantity of viable cells to a tissue of interest with high engraftment efficiency. Low and inefficient homing of systemically delivered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), for example, is thought to be a major limitation of existing MSC-based therapeutic approaches, caused(More)