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2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and(More)
2-Oxoglutarate (2OG) and ferrous iron dependent oxygenases catalyze two-electron oxidations of a range of small and large molecule substrates, including proteins/peptides/amino acids, nucleic acids/bases, and lipids, as well as natural products including antibiotics and signaling molecules. 2OG oxygenases employ variations of a core double-stranded β-helix(More)
The fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO) is a potential target for anti-obesity medicines. FTO is a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent N-methyl nucleic acid demethylase that acts on substrates including 3-methylthymidine, 3-methyluracil, and 6-methyladenine. To identify FTO inhibitors, we screened a set of 2OG analogues and related compounds using(More)
The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those(More)
N(6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal RNA modification in eukaryotes. ALKBH5 belongs to the AlkB family of dioxygenases and has been shown to specifically demethylate m(6)A in single-stranded RNA. Here we report crystal structures of ALKBH5 in the presence of either its cofactors or the ALKBH5 inhibitor citrate. Catalytic assays(More)
2-Oxoglutarate-dependent nucleic acid demethylases are of biological interest because of their roles in nucleic acid repair and modification. Although some of these enzymes are linked to physiology, their regulatory roles are unclear. Hence, there is a desire to develop selective inhibitors for them; we report studies on AlkB, which reveal it as being(More)
ALKBH5 is a 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and ferrous iron-dependent nucleic acid oxygenase (NAOX) that catalyzes the demethylation of N(6)-methyladenine in RNA. ALKBH5 is upregulated under hypoxia and plays a role in spermatogenesis. We describe a crystal structure of human ALKBH5 (residues 66-292) to 2.0 Å resolution. ALKBH5₆₆₋₂₉₂ has a double-stranded β-helix(More)
The use of β-lactam antibiotics is compromised by resistance, which is provided by β-lactamases belonging to both metallo (MBL)- and serine (SBL)-β-lactamase subfamilies. The rhodanines are one of very few compound classes that inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), SBLs and, as recently reported, MBLs. Here, we describe crystallographic analyses of(More)
In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is(More)
Post-translational ribosomal protein hydroxylation is catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and ferrous iron dependent oxygenases, and occurs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. OGFOD1 catalyzes trans-3 prolyl hydroxylation at Pro62 of the small ribosomal subunit protein uS12 (RPS23) and is conserved from yeasts to humans. We describe crystal structures of the human(More)
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