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Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (Apoer2), a member of the LDL receptor gene family, and its ligand Reelin control neuronal migration during brain development. Apoer2 is also essential for induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the adult brain. Here we show that Apoer2 is present in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses where it forms a(More)
Lipodystrophy is a disorder characterized by a loss of adipose tissue often accompanied by severe hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and fatty liver. It can be inherited or acquired. The most severe inherited form is Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy Type 2, associated with mutations in the BSCL2 gene. BSCL2 encodes seipin, the(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) both are secreted uniquely by hepatocytes and circulate in blood in a complex. Here, we isolated from human hepatoma cells the membrane vesicles in which HCV replicates. These vesicles, which contain the HCV replication complex, are highly enriched in proteins required for(More)
Cholesterol homeostasis in animal cells is achieved by regulated cleavage of membrane-bound transcription factors, designated SREBPs. Proteolytic release of the active domains of SREBPs from membranes requires a sterol-sensing protein, SCAP, which forms a complex with SREBPs. In sterol-depleted cells, SCAP escorts SREBPs from ER to Golgi, where SREBPs are(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration are important events in the development of atherosclerosis. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1) mediates suppression of SMC migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Here we show that LRP1 forms a complex with the PDGF receptor (PDGFR). Inactivation of(More)
Retrograde axonal transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) signals is critical for the survival, differentiation, and maintenance of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. However, the mechanisms by which the NGF signal is propagated from the axon terminal to the cell body are yet to be fully elucidated. To gain(More)
We have known for a long time that erythropoietin signaling plays a key role in bone marrow erythrocyte proliferation. However, recent studies have indicated that erythropoietin also may have protective effects on the nervous system. This unexpected role remains incompletely characterized. To investigate the potential neuroprotective role of erythropoietin(More)
PKD2, or polycystin 2, the product of the gene mutated in type 2 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, belongs to the transient receptor potential channel superfamily and has been shown to function as a nonselective cation channel in the plasma membrane. However, the mechanism of PKD2 activation remains elusive. We show that PKD2 overexpression(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic polymorphisms of pri-miR-34b/c and pre-miR-196a2 have been reported to be associated with the susceptibility to cancers. However, the effect of these polymorphisms and their interactions with hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that these(More)
Mutations in either ATP-binding cassette (ABC) G5 or ABCG8 cause sitosterolemia, an autosomal recessive disorder of sterol trafficking. To determine the site of action of ABCG5 and ABCG8, we expressed recombinant, epitope-tagged mouse ABCG5 and ABCG8 in cultured cells. Both ABCG5 and ABCG8 underwent N-linked glycosylation. When either protein was expressed(More)