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Astrocytes are believed to bridge interactions between infiltrating lymphocytes and neurons during brain ischemia, but the mechanisms for this action are poorly understood. Here we found that interleukin-15 (IL-15) is dramatically up-regulated in astrocytes of postmortem brain tissues from patients with ischemic stroke and in a mouse model of transient(More)
The interaction between calcineurin B homologous protein 2 (CHP2) and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), two membrane proteins, is essential for protecting cells from serum deprivation-induced death. Although four putative EF-hands in CHP2 had been predicted for years, Ca²(+) -binding activities of these motifs have not been tested yet, their role in this(More)
AIMS To investigate the clinical characteristics and sera anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody positivity in patients with inflammatory demyelinating disorders (IDDs) of the central nervous system (CNS) in Tianjin, China. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated 234 patients with IDDs including neuromyelitis optica (NMO), recurrent optic neuritis (rON),(More)
Recovery from organ-specific autoimmune diseases largely relies on the mobilization of endogenous repair mechanisms and local factors that control them. Natural killer (NK) cells are swiftly mobilized to organs targeted by autoimmunity and typically undergo numerical contraction when inflammation wanes. We report the unexpected finding that NK cells are(More)
Brain ischemia elicits microglial activation and microglia survival depend on signaling through colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). Although depletion of microglia has been linked to worse stroke outcomes, it remains unclear to what extent and by what mechanisms activated microglia influence ischemia-induced inflammation and injury in the brain.(More)
Glatiramer acetate (GA) is one of the first-line disease-modifying medications that have been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis via immune modulatory mechanisms. However, it remains unclear whether the immunomodulation effect of GA is central nervous system (CNS) antigen specific. Here, we explored the mechanism of action of GA by(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that lymphocytes play a key role in ischemic brain injury. However, there is still a lack of viable approaches to non-invasively track infiltrating lymphocytes and reveal their key spatiotemporal events in the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe an in vivo imaging approach for sequential monitoring of(More)
Microglia are the first responders to intracerebral hemorrhage, but their precise role in intracerebral hemorrhage remains to be defined. Microglia are the only type of brain cells expressing the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, a key regulator for myeloid lineage cells. Here, we determined the effects of a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor(More)
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key cytokine/chemokine in the activation and recruitment of inflammatory T lymphocytes known to exacerbate experimental stroke severity. MIF effects are mediated through its primary cellular receptor, CD74, the MHC class II invariant chain present on all class II expressing cells, including monocytes,(More)
To investigate the relationship between natural killer (NK) cells and traumatic brain injury (TBI), we tracked an established phenotype of circulating NK cells at several time points in patients with different grades of TBI. In serial peripheral blood samples, NK cells were prospectively measured by flow cytometry of CD3− CD56+ lymphocytes. Compared to(More)