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About 8,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, a spontaneous hybridization of the wild diploid grass Aegilops tauschii (2n = 14; DD) with the cultivated tetraploid wheat Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; AABB) resulted in hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum; 2n = 6x = 42; AABBDD). Wheat has since become a primary staple crop worldwide as a result of its enhanced(More)
Rice is a staple crop that has undergone substantial phenotypic and physiological changes during domestication. Here we resequenced the genomes of 40 cultivated accessions selected from the major groups of rice and 10 accessions of their wild progenitors (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to >15 × raw data coverage. We investigated genome-wide variation(More)
We report a large-scale analysis of the patterns of genome-wide genetic variation in soybeans. We re-sequenced a total of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean genomes to an average of approximately ×5 depth and >90% coverage using the Illumina Genome Analyzer II platform. We compared the patterns of genetic variation between wild and cultivated soybeans and(More)
Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were(More)
Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyper-lipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479-343 thousand years BP.(More)
Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and(More)
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common kidney cancer and has very few mutations that are shared between different patients. To better understand the intratumoral genetics underlying mutations of ccRCC, we carried out single-cell exome sequencing on a ccRCC tumor and its adjacent kidney tissue. Our data indicate that this tumor was(More)
BACKGROUND Penguins are flightless aquatic birds widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The distinctive morphological and physiological features of penguins allow them to live an aquatic life, and some of them have successfully adapted to the hostile environments in Antarctica. To study the phylogenetic and population history of penguins and the(More)
Cultivated rice consists of two important ecotypes, upland and irrigated, that have respectively adapted to either dry land or irrigated cultivation. Upland rice, widely adopted in rainfed upland areas in virtue of its little water requirement, contains abundant untapped genetic resources, such as genes for drought adaptation. With water shortage(More)
Rising air temperatures may change the risks of invasive plants; however, little is known about how different warming timings affect the growth and stress-tolerance of invasive plants. We conducted an experiment with an invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum and a native congener Eupatorium chinense, and contrasted their mortality, plant height, total(More)