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Caffeine, a component of tea, coffee and cola, induces wakefulness. It binds to adenosine A1 and A2A receptors as an antagonist, but the receptor subtype mediating caffeine-induced wakefulness remains unclear. Here we report that caffeine at 5, 10 and 15 mg kg−1 increased wakefulness in both wild-type mice and A1 receptor knockout mice, but not in A2A(More)
Histaminergic neurons play an important role in the regulation of sleep-wake behavior through histamine H(1) receptors (H(1)R). Blockade of the histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) is proposed to induce wakefulness by regulating the release of various wake-related transmitters, not only histamine. In the present study, we characterized sleep-wake cycles of H(1)R(More)
Modafinil is a wake-promoting compound with low abuse potential used in the treatment of narcolepsy. Although the compound is reported to affect multiple neurotransmitter systems such as catecholamines, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, orexin, and histamine, however, the molecular mechanism by which modafinil increases wakefulness is debated. Herein we used(More)
Histaminergic neurons have been strongly implicated in the regulation of wakefulness by activating cortical neurons. However, little is known about histamine release in the cortex during sleep-wake stages. In this study, we monitored the extracellular histamine level in the frontal cortex by in vivo microdialysis coupled with electroencephalogram and(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 has been proposed to be essential for the initiation and maintenance of the physiological sleep of rats because intracerebroventricular administration of selenium tetrachloride (SeCl4), a selective inhibitor of PGD synthase (PGDS), was shown to reduce promptly and effectively the amounts of sleep during the period of infusion. However,(More)
Dopamine (DA) and its D(2) receptor (R) are involved in cognition, reward processing, and drug addiction. However, their roles in sleep-wake regulation remain unclear. Herein we investigated the role of D(2)R in sleep-wake regulation by using D(2)R knock-out (KO) mice and pharmacological manipulation. Compared with WT mice, D(2)R KO mice exhibited a(More)
When food is available during a restricted and predictable time of the day, mammals exhibit food-anticipatory activity (FAA), an increase in locomotor activity preceding the presentation of food. Although many studies have attempted to locate the food-entrainable circadian oscillator in the central nervous system, the pathways that mediate food entrainment(More)
Potentially, autoimmune diseases develop from a combination of multiple genes with allelic polymorphisms. An MRL/Mp-Fas(lpr) (/) (lpr) (MRL/lpr) strain of mice develops autoimmune diseases, including lupus nephritis, but another lpr strain, C3H/HeJ-Fas(lpr) (/) (lpr) (C3H/lpr) does not. This indicates that MRL polymorphic genes are involved in the(More)
Caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive compound, is an adenosine receptor antagonist. It promotes wakefulness by blocking adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) in the brain, but the specific neurons on which caffeine acts to produce arousal have not been identified. Using selective gene deletion strategies based on the Cre/loxP technology in mice and(More)
Neuropathic pain is frequently comorbid with sleep disturbances. Paeoniflorin, a main active compound of total glucosides of paeony, has been well documented to exhibit neuroprotective bioactivity. The present study evaluated effects of paeoniflorin on neuropathic pain and associated insomnia and the mechanisms involved. The analgesic and hypnotic effects(More)