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Solution processable fullerene and copolymer bulk heterojunctions are widely used as the active layers of solar cells. In this work, scanning time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is used to examine the distribution of [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) that forms the bulk(More)
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is widely used in various fields, including the semiconductor, biomaterial and microelectronic fields. Obtaining the correct depth profiles of PMMA is essential, especially when it is used as a thin-film. There have been many studies that have used earlier generation of cluster ion (SF5(+)) as the sputtering source to profile(More)
By using 10 kV C(60)(+) and 200 V Ar(+) ion co-sputtering, a crater was created on the light-emitting layer of phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes, which consisted of a poly(9-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) host doped with a 24 wt % iridium(III)bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C(2)] (FIrpic) guest. A force modulation microscope (FMM) was used to(More)
The nanostructure of the light emissive layer (EL) of polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) was investigated using force modulation microscopy (FMM) and scanning time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) excited with focused Bi(3)(2+) primary beam. Three-dimensional nanostructures were reconstructed from high resolution ToF-SIMS images(More)
Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV, play important roles in many cellular behaviors, including cell adhesion and spreading. Understanding their adsorption behavior on surfaces with different natures is helpful for studying the cellular responses to environments. By tailoring the chemical composition in binary(More)
This study demonstrated that the work function (Φ) of Au substrates can be fine-tuned by using series ratios of binary self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). By using pure amine- and carboxylic acid-bearing alkanethiol SAM on gold substrates, Φ of Au changed from 5.10 to 5.16 and 5.83, respectively, as determined by ultra-violet photoelectron spectrometry (UPS).(More)
Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (D-SIMS) analysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was conducted using a quadrupole mass analyzer with various combinations of continuous C(60)(+) and Ar(+) ion sputtering. Individually, the Ar(+) beam failed to generate fragments above m/z 200, and the C(60)(+) beam generated(More)