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Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is one of the most common etiologies of acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis, and pneumonia. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the main focus in new vaccine development against NTHi, as the H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine does not cover noncapsulated NTHi. The OMPs P6 and protein D are the most promising candidate(More)
Pathogenic Leptospira species are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a global zoonotic infectious disease. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules have been confirmed as stress-response elements that induce prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-growth arrest or death, but their role in the virulence of Leptospira has not been reported. Here, we confirmed that all the(More)
Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP) that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA.(More)
In order to investigate the roles of Wnt signal pathway in transformation of cardiac valvular myofibroblasts to the osteoblast-like phenotype, the primary cultured porcine aortic valve myofibroblasts were incubated with oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, 50 mg/L), and divided into four groups according to the ox-LDL treatment time: control group,(More)
Leptospira interrogans is the agent of leptospirosis, a reemerging zoonotic disease. It is transmitted to humans through environmental surface waters contaminated by the urine of mammals chronically infected by pathogenic strains able to survive in water for long periods. Little is known about the regulatory pathways underlying environmental sensing and(More)
Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a pathological process correlated with multiple disease causes and actively regulated by cardiac valve cells. In this study, porcine aortic valve myofibroblasts cultured in vitro were treated with 50 μg z L(-1) of pathological factor tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Tanshinone II A (TSN) with the concentration of 50 mg x(More)
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