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1. High spatial resolution confocal imaging was used to investigate the fundamental nature of "Ca2+ sparks' in rat cardiac myocytes loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator, fluo-3. 2. The sites at which calcium sparks occurred (Ca2+ release sites) were packed closely and irregularly in transverse planes along Z-lines (mean spacing between sites of(More)
1. The ACh-activated K+ current (IK,ACh) has been investigated in guinea-pig atrial cells at 36 degrees C using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. 2. During an exposure to ACh, IK,ACh faded as a result of desensitization. Throughout the fade of the current, the current reversed at EK and showed inward-going rectification. The fade was, therefore, the(More)
L-type Ca2+ current, iCa, has been recorded in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes at 36 degrees C using the whole cell patch clamp technique. Intracellular Ca2+ was buffered with ethylenebis(oxonitrilo)tetraacetate (EGTA). An increase in the rate of stimulation from 0.5 to 3 Hz resulted in an abrupt decrease in iCa in the first beat at the high rate, followed(More)
Angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress responses contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. In this study, we determined whether renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes to the ANG II-induced hypertensive response via interaction with neurotransmitters in the PVN.(More)
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays an essential role in the control of total peripheral vascular resistance by controlling the contraction of small arteries. The SNS also exerts long-term trophic influences in health and disease; SNS hyperactivity accompanies most forms of human essential hypertension, obesity and heart failure. At their junctions(More)
AIM To investigate the fundamental nature of calcium release events (Ca2+ "sparks") evoked in rat ventricular myocytes during excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. METHODS High-resolution line-scan confocal imaging with the fluorescent calcium indicator and patch-clamp techniques were used to study the spontaneous Ca2+ sparks and sparks evoked by(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) released from parasympathetic nerves binds to muscarinic (M2) ACh receptor (mAChR) in the heart, which leads to activation of muscarinic K(+) channel via the betagamma subunit of a G protein. The effect of a general anaesthetic (halothane) on the muscarinic K(+) channel (i(K,Ach)) in guinea-pig atrial cells was investigated using the(More)
BACKGROUND The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus plays an important role in the progression of heart failure (HF). We investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition in the PVN attenuates the activities of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. (More)
1. Activity of rat atrial muscarinic K+ channels has been measured in five configurations of the patch clamp technique. 2. In configurations in which the normal intracellular solution was lost, the slow phase of desensitization (a slow decline of channel activity during an exposure to ACh) was much reduced (or absent) and deactivation (on wash-off of ACh)(More)
Aerobic interval training (AIT) can favorably affect cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of AIT on post-myocardial infarction (MI)-associated mitochondrial dysfunctions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AIT on myocardial mitochondria in post-MI rats by focusing on mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission).(More)