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Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by(More)
Maintenance of root growth is essential for plant adaptation to soil drying. Here, we tested the hypothesis that auxin transport is involved in mediating ABA's modulation by activating proton secretion in the root tip to maintain root growth under moderate water stress. Rice and Arabidopsis plants were raised under a hydroponic system and subjected to(More)
Bacteria colonize the intestine shortly after birth and thereafter exert several beneficial functions, including induction of protective immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. The distal intestine contains IgA(2), which is more resistant to bacterial proteases than is IgA(1). The mechanism by which B cells switch from IgM to IgA(2) remains unknown. We found(More)
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an enigmatic antibody isotype that mature B cells express together with IgM through alternative RNA splicing. Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper respiratory mucosa. This process required activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and generated(More)
The activity of V1 neurons evoked by stimuli within the classical receptive field (CRF) is known to be modulated by stimuli in the surrounding field, the extra-receptive field (ERF). By varying the relative spatial phase (RSP) between a central grating presented in the CRF and a surround grating in the ERF, we studied the contextual modulation in V1 neurons(More)
Epithelial cells (ECs) transport class-switched immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies across mucous membranes. Whether ECs initiate class switching remains unknown. Here we found that ECs lining tonsillar crypts formed pockets populated by B cells expressing activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme associated with ongoing class switching.(More)
Activity-dependent modification of excitatory synaptic transmission is a fundamental mechanism for developmental plasticity of the neural circuits and experience-dependent plasticity. Synaptic glutamatergic receptors including AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs) are embedded in the postsynaptic density, a highly organized protein network.(More)
Contact-dependent communication between immune cells generates protection, but also facilitates viral spread. We found that macrophages formed long-range actin-propelled conduits in response to negative factor (Nef), a human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protein with immunosuppressive functions. Conduits attenuated immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) and IgA(More)
Iron (Fe) is an essential microelement but is highly toxic when in excess. The response of plant roots to Fe toxicity and the nature of the regulatory pathways engaged are poorly understood. Here, we examined the response to excess Fe exposure in Arabidopsis wild type and ethylene mutants with a focus on primary root growth and the role of ethylene. We(More)
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 is a zinc ion dependent enzyme involved in removing the acetyl group from the core histones and other proteins which belong to Class I HDACs. It was reported that nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of HDAC function and S-nitrosylation of HDAC2 induces chromatin remodelling in neurons. This work reports the successful(More)