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Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by(More)
Bacteria colonize the intestine shortly after birth and thereafter exert several beneficial functions, including induction of protective immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. The distal intestine contains IgA(2), which is more resistant to bacterial proteases than is IgA(1). The mechanism by which B cells switch from IgM to IgA(2) remains unknown. We found(More)
Activity-dependent modification of excitatory synaptic transmission is a fundamental mechanism for developmental plasticity of the neural circuits and experience-dependent plasticity. Synaptic glutamatergic receptors including AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs) are embedded in the postsynaptic density, a highly organized protein network.(More)
Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an enigmatic antibody isotype that mature B cells express together with IgM through alternative RNA splicing. Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper respiratory mucosa. This process required activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and generated(More)
BAFF and APRIL are innate immune mediators that trigger immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA class-switch recombination (CSR) in B cells by engaging the receptor TACI. The mechanism that underlies CSR signaling by TACI remains unknown. Here we found that the cytoplasmic domain of TACI encompasses a conserved motif that bound MyD88, an adaptor that activates(More)
Maintenance of root growth is essential for plant adaptation to soil drying. Here, we tested the hypothesis that auxin transport is involved in mediating ABA's modulation by activating proton secretion in the root tip to maintain root growth under moderate water stress. Rice and Arabidopsis plants were raised under a hydroponic system and subjected to(More)
Epithelial cells (ECs) transport class-switched immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies across mucous membranes. Whether ECs initiate class switching remains unknown. Here we found that ECs lining tonsillar crypts formed pockets populated by B cells expressing activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme associated with ongoing class switching.(More)
Contact-dependent communication between immune cells generates protection but also facilitates viral spread. Here we found that macrophages formed long-range actin-propelled conduits in response to negative factor (Nef), a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein with immunosuppressive functions. Conduits attenuated immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) and(More)
The activity of V1 neurons evoked by stimuli within the classical receptive field (CRF) is known to be modulated by stimuli in the surrounding field, the extra-receptive field (ERF). By varying the relative spatial phase (RSP) between a central grating presented in the CRF and a surround grating in the ERF, we studied the contextual modulation in V1 neurons(More)
Visual perception of an object depends on the discontinuity between the object and its background, which can be defined by a variety of visual features, such as luminance, colour and motion. While human object perception is largely cue invariant, the extent to which neural mechanisms in the primary visual cortex contribute to cue-invariant perception has(More)