Learn More
In eukaryotic cells, autophagy is a highly conserved self-digestion process to promote cell survival in response to nutrient starvation and other metabolic stresses. Autophagy is regulated by cell signalling such as the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. However, the significance of autophagy in modulation of signal transduction is unclear. Here(More)
Mitochondria dysfunction is implicated in diverse conditions, including metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial dynamics has attracted increasing attention as to its relationship with mitochondria autophagy, also known as mitophagy, which is critical for degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis.(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) elicits its signals through two transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors, type II (TbetaRII) and type I receptors. It is generally believed that the initial receptor dimerization is an essential event for receptor activation. However, previous studies suggested that TGF-beta signals by binding to the(More)
Local evoked potentials (LEPs), recorded in response to electrical stimulation, were used to study functional connectivity between different sites of the temporal lobe. Permanent electrodes were implanted in anterior and posterior positions of both inferotemporal cortex (IT) and hippocampal formation (HF). In each experimental session, one of these four(More)
Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis involve the progressive and inexorable destruction of oxygen exchange surfaces and airways, and have emerged as a leading cause of death worldwide. Mitigating therapies, aside from impractical organ transplantation, remain limited and the possibility of regenerative medicine(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta regulates a spectrum of cellular events, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In addition to the canonical Smad pathway, TGF-beta can also activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and small GTPases in a cell-specific manner. Here, we report that(More)
This study focused on the fouling behaviors of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to obtain the relations of EPS specific constituents with membrane fouling. It was found that for the EPS extracted from bulk sludge, the LB-EPS induced the largest flux decline; however, for EPS extracted from cake(More)
OBJECTIVE In patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) showing normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (normal PSA group) and those with BPH showing gray-zone PSA levels (gray-zone PSA group), we assessed PSA levels secreted from the internal and external glands. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed transurethral enucleation of the prostate(More)
We compared the outcomes, advantages, and disadvantages of retropubic and perineal approaches to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. From 1990 to 2000, 37 patients (average age: 66.6 years) who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and 30 patients (average age: 70.1 years) who underwent radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP) were identified(More)
Major depression is thought to originate from maladaptation to adverse events, particularly when impairments occur in mood-related brain regions. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the major systems involved in physiological stress response. HPA axis dysfunction and high glucocorticoid concentrations play an important role in the(More)