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Bayesian belief nets (BNs) are often used for classification tasks -- typically to return the most likely "class label" for each specified instance. Many BN-learners, however, attempt to find the BN that maximizes a different objective function (viz., likelihood, rather than classification accuracy), typically by first learning an appropriate graphical(More)
N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains of inwardly rectifying K (Kir) channels control the ion-permeation pathway through diverse interactions with small molecules and protein ligands in the cytoplasm. Two new crystal structures of the cytoplasmic domains of Kir2.1 (Kir2.1(L)) and the G protein-sensitive Kir3.1 (Kir3.1(S)) channels in the absence of PIP(2)(More)
Nav1.2 and Nav1.6 are two voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms that are abundant in the adult central nervous system. These channels are expressed in different cells and localized in different neuronal regions, which may reflect functional specialization. To examine this possibility, we compared the properties of Nav1.2 and Nav1.6 in response to a rapid(More)
Axonal Kv1 channels regulate action potential propagation-an evolutionarily conserved function important for the control of motor behavior as evidenced from the linkage of human Kv1 channel mutations to myokymia/episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) and the Shaker mutant phenotype in Drosophila. To search for the machinery that mediates axonal targeting of Kv1(More)
This paper presents a study of incorporating domain-specific knowledge (i.e., information about concepts and relationships between concepts in a certain domain) in an information retrieval (IR) system to improve its effectiveness in retrieving biomedical literature. The effects of different types of domain-specific knowledge in performance contribution are(More)
Release of ATP from astrocytes is required for Ca2+ wave propagation among astrocytes and for feedback modulation of synaptic functions. However, the mechanism of ATP release and the source of ATP in astrocytes are still not known. Here we show that incubation of astrocytes with FM dyes leads to selective labelling of lysosomes. Time-lapse confocal imaging(More)
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) mediate most excitatory signaling in the brain and are composed of GluR principal subunits and transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) auxiliary subunits. Previous studies identified four mammalian TARPs, gamma-2 (or stargazin), gamma-3, gamma-4, and gamma-8, that control AMPA receptor trafficking, gating,(More)
MOTIVATION Abbreviations are an important type of terminology in the biomedical domain. Although several groups have already created databases of biomedical abbreviations, these are either not public, or are not comprehensive, or focus exclusively on acronym-type abbreviations. We have created another abbreviation database, ADAM, which covers commonly used(More)