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1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase is the key regulatory enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone ethylene. The enzyme is encoded by a divergent multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, comprising at least five genes, ACS1-5 (Liang, X., Abel, S., Keller, J.A., Shen,N. N.F., and Theologis, A. (1992) Poc. Natl. Acad. Sci.(More)
NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor, a subclass of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, participates in synaptic transmission and plays important roles in various higher brain functions in the vertebrate central nervous system. Here, we report the cloning of two NR1 subunits of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports that(More)
BACKGROUND Adar2 deaminates selective adenosines to inosines (A-to-I RNA editing) in the double-stranded region of nuclear transcripts. Although the functions of mouse Adar2 and its biologically most important substrate gria2, encoding the GluA2 subunit of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptor, have been extensively studied,(More)
In this study, a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method was developed to determine the A-to-I RNA editing frequencies at specific sites. The A-to-I RNA editing of nuclear transcripts exerts profound effects on the biological activities of gene products. RNA editing of nuclear gene transcripts have been shown to be developmentally regulated and tissue specific, and(More)
The AMPA receptor (AMPAR), a pharmacologically defined ionotropic glutamate receptor, mediates fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system. Mammalian and avian AMPARs are assembled from the products of four genes (GRIA1–GRIA4) conserved in their translated sequences and gene organizations. Teleost fish also express AMPAR(More)
Axons are long, slender processes extending from the cell bodies of neurons and play diverse and crucial roles in the development and function of nervous systems. Here, we describe the development of a chip device that can be used to produce large quantities of axons for proteomic and RNA analyses. On the chip surface, bundles of axons of rat hippocampal(More)
Dendritic spines are small protrusions on neuronal dendrites and the major target of the excitatory inputs in mammalian brains. Cultured neurons and brain slices are important tools in studying the biochemical and cellular properties of dendritic spines. During the processes of immunocytochemical studies of neurons and the preparation of brain slices,(More)
The identification of regulatory elements recognized by transcription factors and chromatin remodeling factors is essential to studying the regulation of gene expression. When no auxiliary data, such as orthologous sequences or expression profiles, are used, the accuracy of most tools for motif discovery is strongly influenced by the motif degeneracy and(More)
The AMPA-preferring receptors (AMPARs) mediate rapid excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Expression profiles of 8 AMPAR genes were studied by RT-PCR analyses to elucidate the properties of AMPARs during early zebrafish development. Transcripts of all AMPAR genes are detected at the time of fertilization, suggesting(More)
The incomplete correlation between the organismal complexities and the number of genes among eukaryotic organisms can be partially explained by multiple protein products of a gene created by alternative splicing. One type of alternative splicing involves alternative selection of mutually exclusive exons and creates protein products with substitution of one(More)