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Formation of the apical surface and lumen is a fundamental, yet poorly understood, step in epithelial organ development. We show that PTEN localizes to the apical plasma membrane during epithelial morphogenesis to mediate the enrichment of PtdIns(4,5)P2 at this domain during cyst development in three-dimensional culture. Ectopic PtdIns(4,5)P2 at the(More)
The most fundamental type of organization of cells in metazoa is that of epithelia, which comprise sheets of adherent cells that divide the organism into topologically and physiologically distinct spaces. Some epithelial cells cover the outside of the organism; these often form multiple layers, such as in skin. Other epithelial cells form monolayers that(More)
The PI3 kinase family of lipid kinases promotes cell growth and survival by generating the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate. To define targets critical for cancers driven by activation of PI3 kinase, we screened a panel of potent and structurally diverse drug-like molecules that target this enzyme family. Surprisingly, a single(More)
Polarity is a central feature of eukaryotic cells and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) has a central role in the polarization of neurons and chemotaxing cells. In polarized epithelial cells, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is stably localized at the basolateral plasma membrane, but excluded from the apical plasma membrane, as shown by localization(More)
The Diagnostic Cost Group Hierarchical Condition Category (DCG/HCC) payment models summarize the health care problems and predict the future health care costs of populations. These models use the diagnoses generated during patient encounters with the medical delivery system to infer which medical problems are present. Patient demographics and diagnostic(More)
Direct counting techniques, first developed for aquatic samples, can be used to enumerate bacteria in soil and groundwater sediments. Two fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) for actively respiring bacteria and 4(prm1),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for total bacteria, were tested for their usefulness in epifluorescent direct(More)
Epithelial cells polarize and orient polarity in response to cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Although there has been much recent progress in understanding the general polarizing machinery of epithelia, it is largely unclear how this machinery is controlled by the extracellular environment. To explore the signals from cell-matrix interactions that(More)
Coronary arteries bring blood flow to the heart muscle. Understanding the developmental program of the coronary arteries provides insights into the treatment of coronary artery diseases. Multiple sources have been described as contributing to coronary arteries including the proepicardium, sinus venosus (SV), and endocardium. However, the developmental(More)
Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the most commonly cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice. Despite the extensive studies, the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy, however, remains incompletely understood. Studies have demonstrated that insulin signaling may be involved in cardiac growth and protein synthesis. More recently, a growing body of evidence(More)
In multicellular epithelial tissues, the orientation of polarity of each cell must be coordinated. Previously, we reported that for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in three-dimensional collagen gel culture, blockade of beta1-integrin by the AIIB2 antibody or expression of dominant-negative Rac1N17 led to an inversion of polarity, such that the apical(More)