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Formation of the apical surface and lumen is a fundamental, yet poorly understood, step in epithelial organ development. We show that PTEN localizes to the apical plasma membrane during epithelial morphogenesis to mediate the enrichment of PtdIns(4,5)P2 at this domain during cyst development in three-dimensional culture. Ectopic PtdIns(4,5)P2 at the(More)
Caloric restriction (CR) extends the life span and health span of a variety of species and slows the progression of age-related hearing loss (AHL), a common age-related disorder associated with oxidative stress. Here, we report that CR reduces oxidative DNA damage in multiple tissues and prevents AHL in wild-type mice but fails to modify these phenotypes in(More)
Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) occur in certain human brain tumors, but their mechanistic role in tumor development is unknown. We have shown that tumor-derived IDH1 mutations impair the enzyme's affinity for its substrate and dominantly inhibit wild-type IDH1 activity through the formation of catalytically(More)
The most fundamental type of organization of cells in metazoa is that of epithelia, which comprise sheets of adherent cells that divide the organism into topologically and physiologically distinct spaces. Some epithelial cells cover the outside of the organism; these often form multiple layers, such as in skin. Other epithelial cells form monolayers that(More)
The Diagnostic Cost Group Hierarchical Condition Category (DCG/HCC) payment models summarize the health care problems and predict the future health care costs of populations. These models use the diagnoses generated during patient encounters with the medical delivery system to infer which medical problems are present. Patient demographics and diagnostic(More)
The PI3 kinase family of lipid kinases promotes cell growth and survival by generating the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate. To define targets critical for cancers driven by activation of PI3 kinase, we screened a panel of potent and structurally diverse drug-like molecules that target this enzyme family. Surprisingly, a single(More)
PURPOSE Increased hepatocyte growth factor/MET signaling is associated with poor prognosis and acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) -targeted drugs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated whether dual inhibition of MET/EGFR results in clinical benefit in patients with NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
Circadian clocks are self-sustained cellular oscillators that synchronize oxidative and reductive cycles in anticipation of the solar cycle. We found that the clock transcription feedback loop produces cycles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, adenosine triphosphate production, and mitochondrial respiration through modulation of(More)
Polarity is a central feature of eukaryotic cells and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) has a central role in the polarization of neurons and chemotaxing cells. In polarized epithelial cells, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is stably localized at the basolateral plasma membrane, but excluded from the apical plasma membrane, as shown by localization(More)
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired form of hypophosphatemia. Tumor resection leads to cure. We investigated the clinical characteristics of TIO, diagnostic methods, and course after tumor resection in Beijing, China, and compared them with 269 previous published reports of TIO. A total of 94 patients with adult-onset hypophosphatemic(More)