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NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that are present at most excitatory mammalian synapses. The four GluN2 subunits (GluN2A-D) contribute to four diheteromeric NMDAR subtypes that have divergent physiological and pathological roles. Channel properties that are fundamental to NMDAR function vary among subtypes. We investigated the amino(More)
BACKGROUND Most patients with cancer prefer to die at home or in a hospice, but hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD).This study aims to explore the changing time trends of PoD and the associated factors, which are essential for end-of-life care improvement. METHODS AND FINDINGS The study analysed all cancer deaths in England collected by(More)
BACKGROUND Gleevec (aka STI571, Imatinib) is a recently FDA approved anti-tumor drug for chronic myelogenous leukemia. Gleevec binds specifically to BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase and inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity. It cross-reacts with another two important membrane tyrosine kinase receptors, c-kit and PDGF receptors. We sought to investigate if Gleevec has(More)
This study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Liu Wei Dihuang (LWDH) against D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain injury in rats and the existence of sex-dependent differences in LWDH protection. Sixty-four rats evenly composed of males and females were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 8): normal saline (NS) + NS (N + N), NS + LWDH (N + L),(More)
An allograft is often considered an immunologically inert playing field on which host leukocytes assemble and wreak havoc. However, we demonstrate that graft-specific physiologic responses to early injury initiate and promulgate destruction of vascularized grafts. Serial analysis of allografts showed that intragraft expression of the three chemokine ligands(More)
Chemokines provide signals for activation and recruitment of effector cells into sites of inflammation, acting via specific G protein-coupled receptors. However, in vitro data demonstrating the presence of multiple ligands for a given chemokine receptor, and often multiple receptors for a given chemokine, have led to concerns of biologic redundancy. Here we(More)
Neuregulin-1β (NRG-1β) signaling has multiple functions in neurons. To assess NRG-1β on neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration in vitro, organotypic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal culture model was established. Neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration were evaluated using this culture model in the presence (5nmol/L, 10nmol/L, 20nmol/L) or absence of(More)
The question of whether olivocochlear (OC) efferent feedback can decrease permanent damage from acoustic overexposure was investigated by comparing the chronic threshold shifts and cochlear histopathology in guinea pigs either surgically de-efferented or sham-operated and then exposed (awake and unrestrained) to a 109- or 112-dB narrow-band noise centered(More)
Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in microgravity on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded(More)
T cell recognition of foreign peptide antigen and tolerance to self peptides is key to the proper function of the immune system. Usually, in the thymus T cells that recognize self MHC + self peptides are deleted and those with the potential to recognize self MHC + foreign peptides are selected to mature. However there are exceptions to these rules.(More)