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This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium-access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring. We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with(More)
This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring. We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with nodes(More)
Energy is a critical resource in sensor networks. MAC protocols such as S-MAC and T-MAC coordinate sleep schedules to reduce energy consumption. Recently, lowpower listening (LPL) approaches such as WiseMAC and B-MAC exploit very brief polling of channel activity combined with long preambles before each transmission, saving energy particularly during low(More)
It is widely known that in wireless sensor networks (WSN), energy efficiency is of utmost importance. WSN need to be energy efficient but also need to provide better performance, particularly latency. A common protocol design guideline has been to trade off some performance metrics such as throughput and delay for energy. This paper presents a novel MAC(More)
This paper explores applications and challenges for underwater sensor networks. We highlight potential applications to off-shore oilfields for seismic monitoring, equipment monitoring, and underwater robotics. We identify research directions in short-range acoustic communications, MAC, time synchronization, and localization protocols for high-latency(More)
This paper introduces T-Lohi, a new class of distributed and energy-efficient media-access protocols (MAC) for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSN). MAC design for UWSN faces significant challenges. For example, acoustic communication suffers from latencies five orders-of-magnitude larger than radio communication, so a naive CSMA MAC would require(More)
Formal Program running time verification is an important issue in system design required for performance optimization under "first-time-right" design constraints and for real-time system verification. Simulation based approaches or simple instruction counting are not appropriate and risky for more complex architectures in particular with data dependent(More)
A physical map has been constructed of the human genome containing 15,086 sequence-tagged sites (STSs), with an average spacing of 199 kilobases. The project involved assembly of a radiation hybrid map of the human genome containing 6193 loci and incorporated a genetic linkage map of the human genome containing 5264 loci. This information was combined with(More)
The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) mediates epigenetic gene silencing by trimethylating histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and is known to aberrantly silence tumor suppressor genes in cancer. EZH2, the catalytic subunit of PRC2, enhances tumorigenesis and is commonly overexpressed in several types of cancer. Our microRNA profiling of bladder transitional(More)
A novel male-sterile mutant which lacks mature pollen, Brassisa campestris male sterile (bcms), was identified in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino (syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis). Genetic analysis revealed that bcms was controlled by a single recessive mutation locus. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed on the flower buds of both(More)