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Mass transfer resistance of the dry layer during the primary drying phase of a lyophilizaton cycle is probably the most important factor affecting maximum product temperature and drying time. Product resistance parameters should be determined for each formulation because of their dependence of formulation composition and concentration. The purpose of this(More)
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of terminal sterilization by gamma irradiation on 500-mL amber Type I and Type III glass containers (bottles) containing oxytetracycline (OTC) (25% W/V) suspension formulated using 20% (W/V) phospholipids syrup. The formulation was developed for veterinary parenteral administration. The results of(More)
A radiotracer method is used to study the transport properties of water vapor in polyvinylchloride (PVC), a plastic commonly used in the packaging of parenteral solutions. Water vapor transport across a PVC film appears to be Fickian in nature. Using the steady-state solution of Fick's second law and the permeability coefficient of water vapor across the(More)
A case study has been developed to illustrate one way of incorporating a Quality by Design approach into formulation and process development for a small molecule, freeze-dried parenteral product. Sodium ethacrynate was chosen as the model compound. Principal degradation products of sodium ethacrynate result from hydrolysis of the unsaturated ketone in(More)
We describe an approach to zero-order drug delivery systems that utilizes a device consisting of multiple holes uniformly distributed in an impermeable membrane. The interior of the device is filled with a suspension of a drug in a polymeric matrix. Near zero-order release is attained by using the proper density and configuration of holes on the surface of(More)
A novel and scalable method has been developed to enable control of the ice nucleation step for the freezing process during lyophilization. This method manipulates the chamber pressure of the freeze dryer to simultaneously induce nucleation in all product vials at a desired temperature. The effects of controlled nucleation on the drying rate of various(More)
The purpose of this study was to perform a rapid determination of vial heat transfer parameters, that is, the contact parameter K(cs) and the separation distance l(v), using the sublimation rate profiles measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). In this study, each size of vial was filled with pure water followed by a freeze-drying(More)
During gap freezing, vials are placed on a metal tray, which is separated from the shelf surface with a small air gap that eliminates significant conductive heat transfer from the shelf to the bottom of the vial. The purpose of this freezing approach is to reduce the lyophilization cycle time of various amorphous formulations by nearly isothermal freezing.(More)
The purpose of this study was to develop the correlation of cycle parameters between a laboratory and a production freeze-dryer. With the established correlation, key cycle parameters obtained using a laboratory dryer may be converted to those for a production dryer with minimal experimental efforts. In order to develop the correlation, it was important to(More)
Computer programs in FORTRAN were developed to rapidly determine the optimal shelf temperature, T(f), and chamber pressure, P(c), to achieve the shortest primary drying time. The constraint for the optimization is to ensure that the product temperature profile, T(b), is below the target temperature, T(target). Five percent mannitol was chosen as the model(More)