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IDH1 and IDH2 mutations occur frequently in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia, leading to simultaneous loss and gain of activities in the production of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), respectively. Here we demonstrate that 2-HG is a competitive inhibitor of multiple α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the(More)
Protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a key posttranslational modification in cellular regulation, in particular through the modification of histones and nuclear transcription regulators. We show that lysine acetylation is a prevalent modification in enzymes that catalyze intermediate metabolism. Virtually every enzyme in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis,(More)
Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) occur in certain human brain tumors, but their mechanistic role in tumor development is unknown. We have shown that tumor-derived IDH1 mutations impair the enzyme's affinity for its substrate and dominantly inhibit wild-type IDH1 activity through the formation of catalytically(More)
BACKGROUND The addition of rituximab to combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP), or R-CHOP, has significantly improved the survival of patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. Whether gene-expression signatures correlate with survival after treatment of diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma is unclear. (More)
B cells are important in the development of autoimmune disorders by mechanisms involving dysregulated polyclonal B-cell activation, production of pathogenic antibodies, and co-stimulation of autoreactive T cells. zTNF4 (BLyS, BAFF, TALL-1, THANK) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family that is a potent co-activator of B cells in vitro(More)
The vinculin gene codes for a cytoskeletal protein, found in focal adhesion plaques and in cell-cell adherens junctions. Vinculin was inactivated by homologous recombination using a targeting vector in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The heterozygous ES cells were introduced into mice by established procedures to produce heterozygous animals that were normal and(More)
Cytokines are important in the regulation of haematopoiesis and immune responses, and can influence lymphocyte development. Here we have identified a class I cytokine receptor that is selectively expressed in lymphoid tissues and is capable of signal transduction. The full-length receptor was expressed in BaF3 cells, which created a functional assay for(More)
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth and development as well as stress tolerance. The Arabidopsis sad1 (supersensitive to ABA and drought) mutation increases plant sensitivity to drought stress and ABA in seed germination, root growth, and the expression of some stress-responsive genes. sad1 plants are also defective in the positive(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade C causes >50% of all HIV infections worldwide, and an estimated 90% of all transmissions occur mucosally with R5 strains. A pathogenic R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) encoding HIV clade C env is highly desirable to evaluate candidate AIDS vaccines in nonhuman primates. To this end, we generated(More)
ErbB receptors are a family of ligand-activated tyrosine kinases that play a central role in proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis. ErbB2 is overexpressed in >25% of breast and ovarian cancers and is correlated with poor prognosis. Although ErbB2 and ErbB1 are highly homologous, they respond quite differently to geldanamycin (GA), an antibiotic(More)