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1 The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative(More)
Ectopic expression of the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 is sufficient to confer a pluripotent state upon the fibroblast genome, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. It remains unknown if nuclear reprogramming induced by these four factors globally resets epigenetic differences between differentiated and pluripotent(More)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) outwardly appear to be indistinguishable from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A study of gene expression profiles of mouse and human ESCs and iPSCs suggests that, while iPSCs are quite similar to their embryonic counterparts, a recurrent gene expression signature appears in iPSCs regardless of their origin or the method(More)
DNA methylation at proximal promoters facilitates lineage restriction by silencing cell type-specific genes. However, euchromatic DNA methylation frequently occurs in regions outside promoters. The functions of such nonproximal promoter DNA methylation are unclear. Here we show that the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a is expressed in postnatal neural(More)
Differential methylation of the two parental genomes in placental mammals is essential for genomic imprinting and embryogenesis. To systematically study this epigenetic process, we have generated a base-resolution, allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) map in the mouse genome. We find parent-of-origin dependent (imprinted) ASM at 1,952 CG dinucleotides.(More)
Aligning proteins based on their structural similarity is a fundamental problem in molecular biology with applications in many settings, including structure classification, database search, function prediction, and assessment of folding prediction methods. Structural alignment can be done via several methods, including contact map overlap (CMO) maximization(More)
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to play crucial roles in mammalian development, but their precise functions are only partially understood. To investigate epigenetic regulation of embryonic development, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells into mesendoderm, neural progenitor cells, trophoblast-like cells, and mesenchymal stem cells and(More)
Transcriptional enhancers play critical roles in regulation of gene expression, but their identification in the eukaryotic genome has been challenging. Recently, it was shown that enhancers in the mammalian genome are associated with characteristic histone modification patterns, which have been increasingly exploited for enhancer identification. However,(More)
At telomeric heterochromatin in yeast, the Sir protein complex spreads from Rap1 sites to silence adjacent genes. This cascade is believed to occur when Sir2, an NAD(+)-dependent enzyme, deacetylates histone H3 and H4 N termini, in particular histone H4 K16, enabling more Sir protein binding. Lysine 56 of histone H3 is located at the entry-exit points of(More)
Lysine 56 acetylation in the helical core of histone H3 opens yeast chromatin and enables histone gene transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair and prevents epigenetic silencing. While K56Ac is globally abundant in yeast and flies, its presence has been uncertain in mammals. We show here using mass spectrometry and genome-wide analyses that K56Ac is(More)