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Ectopic expression of the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 is sufficient to confer a pluripotent state upon the fibroblast genome, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. It remains unknown if nuclear reprogramming induced by these four factors globally resets epigenetic differences between differentiated and pluripotent(More)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) outwardly appear to be indistinguishable from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A study of gene expression profiles of mouse and human ESCs and iPSCs suggests that, while iPSCs are quite similar to their embryonic counterparts, a recurrent gene expression signature appears in iPSCs regardless of their origin or the method(More)
reference epigenomes for histone modification marks when available (see Fig. 2). Signal confidence scores for each histone mark are computed in relevant chromatin states (see Methods). Plot and location of each point is identical to Fig. S10, but instead of denoting tissue/cell type, the colors denote the REMC production location, to evaluate whether the(More)
DNA methylation at proximal promoters facilitates lineage restriction by silencing cell type-specific genes. However, euchromatic DNA methylation frequently occurs in regions outside promoters. The functions of such nonproximal promoter DNA methylation are unclear. Here we show that the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a is expressed in postnatal neural(More)
The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative(More)
Higher-order chromatin structure is emerging as an important regulator of gene expression. Although dynamic chromatin structures have been identified in the genome, the full scope of chromatin dynamics during mammalian development and lineage specification remains to be determined. By mapping genome-wide chromatin interactions in human embryonic stem (ES)(More)
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to play crucial roles in mammalian development, but their precise functions are only partially understood. To investigate epigenetic regulation of embryonic development, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells into mesendoderm, neural progenitor cells, trophoblast-like cells, and mesenchymal stem cells and(More)
Differential methylation of the two parental genomes in placental mammals is essential for genomic imprinting and embryogenesis. To systematically study this epigenetic process, we have generated a base-resolution, allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) map in the mouse genome. We find parent-of-origin dependent (imprinted) ASM at 1,952 CG dinucleotides.(More)
Aligning proteins based on their structural similarity is a fundamental problem in molecular biology with applications in many settings, including structure classification, database search, function prediction, and assessment of folding prediction methods. Structural alignment can be done via several methods, including contact map overlap (CMO) maximization(More)
At telomeric heterochromatin in yeast, the Sir protein complex spreads from Rap1 sites to silence adjacent genes. This cascade is believed to occur when Sir2, an NAD(+)-dependent enzyme, deacetylates histone H3 and H4 N termini, in particular histone H4 K16, enabling more Sir protein binding. Lysine 56 of histone H3 is located at the entry-exit points of(More)