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The calpain system originally comprised three molecules: two Ca2+-dependent proteases, mu-calpain and m-calpain, and a third polypeptide, calpastatin, whose only known function is to inhibit the two calpains. Both mu- and m-calpain are heterodimers containing an identical 28-kDa subunit and an 80-kDa subunit that shares 55-65% sequence homology between the(More)
Motion detection is an essential component of visual processing. On-Off direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (On-Off DSGCs) detect objects moving along specific axes of the visual field due to their precise retinal circuitry. The brain circuitry of On-Off DSGCs, however, is largely unknown. We report a mouse with GFP expressed selectively by the(More)
MapReduce has become increasingly popular as a powerful parallel data processing model. To deploy MapReduce as a data processing service over open systems such as service oriented architecture, cloud computing, and volunteer computing, we must provide necessary security mechanisms to protect the integrity of MapReduce data processing services. In this(More)
Influence maximization, defined by Kempe, Kleinberg, and Tardos (2003), is the problem of finding a small set of seed nodes in a social network that maximizes the spread of influence under certain influence cascade models. In this paper, we propose an extension to the independent cascade model that incorporates the emergence and propagation of negative(More)
Eukaryotes have evolved complex mechanisms to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through coordinated actions of protein sensors, transducers, and effectors. Here we show that ∼21-nucleotide small RNAs are produced from the sequences in the vicinity of DSB sites in Arabidopsis and in human cells. We refer to these as diRNAs for DSB-induced small RNAs. In(More)
WRKY-type transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and stress response. WRKY genes have been found to be responsive to abiotic stresses; however, their roles in abiotic stress tolerance are largely unknown especially in crops. Here, we identified stress-responsive WRKY genes from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and(More)
On-Off direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DSGCs) encode the axis of visual motion. They respond strongly to an object moving in a preferred direction and weakly to an object moving in the opposite, "null," direction. Historically, On-Off DSGCs were classified into four subtypes according to their directional preference (anterior, posterior,(More)
Although several Kalman filtering algorithms have been presented for adaptive multiuser detection, none is “blind” due to requiring training data sequences and/or more knowledge than the spreading waveform and delay of the desired user. This paper proposes a novel blind adaptive multiuser detector based on Kalman filtering and compares it with previously(More)
DSCAM and DSCAM-LIKE1 (DSCAML1) serve diverse neurodevelopmental functions, including axon guidance, synaptic adhesion, and self-avoidance, depending on the species, cell type, and gene family member studied. We examined the function of DSCAM and DSCAML1 in the developing mouse retina. In addition to a subset of amacrine cells, Dscam was expressed in most(More)
Distributed systems without trusted identities are particularly vulnerable to sybil attacks, where an adversary creates multiple bogus identities to compromise the running of the system. This paper presents SybilDefender, a sybil defense mechanism that leverages the network topologies to defend against sybil attacks in social networks. Based on performing a(More)