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The calpain system originally comprised three molecules: two Ca2+-dependent proteases, mu-calpain and m-calpain, and a third polypeptide, calpastatin, whose only known function is to inhibit the two calpains. Both mu- and m-calpain are heterodimers containing an identical 28-kDa subunit and an 80-kDa subunit that shares 55-65% sequence homology between the(More)
Motion detection is an essential component of visual processing. On-Off direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (On-Off DSGCs) detect objects moving along specific axes of the visual field due to their precise retinal circuitry. The brain circuitry of On-Off DSGCs, however, is largely unknown. We report a mouse with GFP expressed selectively by the(More)
Influence maximization, defined by Kempe, Kleinberg, and Tardos (2003), is the problem of finding a small set of seed nodes in a social network that maximizes the spread of influence under certain influence cascade models. In this paper, we propose an extension to the independent cascade model that incorporates the emergence and propagation of negative(More)
Wenlin Li,1 Wei Wei,2 Saiyong Zhu,1 Jinliang Zhu,2 Yan Shi,1 Tongxiang Lin,1 Ergeng Hao,3 Alberto Hayek,3 Hongkui Deng,2,* and Sheng Ding1,* 1Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA 2Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871,(More)
The changes in synaptic morphology and receptor content that underlie neural plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we use a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein to tag recombinant glutamate receptors and monitor their dynamics onto dendritic spine surfaces. We show that chemically induced long-term potentiation (chemLTP) drives robust exocytosis of AMPA(More)
WRKY-type transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and stress response. WRKY genes have been found to be responsive to abiotic stresses; however, their roles in abiotic stress tolerance are largely unknown especially in crops. Here, we identified stress-responsive WRKY genes from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and(More)
Apelin is a recently discovered peptide that is the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor. The aim of this study was to characterize apelin expression (mRNA levels) in the rat gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, to localize distribution of apelin peptide-containing cells in the stomach by immunohistochemistry, and to characterize the ontogeny of gastric(More)
Plant-specific transcription factor NAC proteins play essential roles in many biological processes such as development, senescence, morphogenesis, and stress signal transduction pathways. In the NAC family, some members function as transcription activators while others act as repressors. In the present study we found that though the full-length GmNAC20 from(More)
—Distributed systems without trusted identities are particularly vulnerable to sybil attacks, where an adversary creates multiple bogus identities to compromise the running of the system. This paper presents SybilDefender, a sybil defense mechanism that leverages the network topologies to defend against sybil attacks in social networks. Based on performing(More)