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Ten ice-sheet models are used to study sensitivity of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to prescribed changes of surface mass balance, sub-ice-shelf melting and basal sliding. Results exhibit a large range in projected contributions to sea-level change. In most cases, the ice volume above flotation lost is linearly dependent on the strength of the(More)
A central question is how various stages of neuronal development are integrated as a differentiation program. Here we show that the nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcriptional regulators is expressed and functions throughout the postmitotic development of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Expression of an NFI dominant repressor in CGN cultures blocked(More)
Silicon can host a large amount of lithium, making it a promising electrode for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. Recent experiments indicate that silicon experiences large plastic deformation upon Li absorption, which can significantly decrease the stresses induced by lithiation and thus mitigate fracture failure of electrodes. These issues become(More)
The aim of this study was to understand the growth dynamics of Saccharina japonica (previously known as Laminaria japonica), particularly the portion lost during its growth cycle and the key factors that control loss rate in Sungo Bay, China. Growth and loss of S. japonica were investigated between January and July 2010 in Sungo Bay. Losses of the seaweed(More)
Nervous system formation requires the elaboration of a complex series of differentiation events in both a spatially and maturation-regulated manner. A fundamental question is how neuronal subtype specification and developmental gene expression are controlled within maturing neurons. The alpha6 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor(More)
The NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) bind conserved bacterial ligands, such as the bacterial rod protein PrgJ, and recruit NLR family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) as the inflammasome adapter to activate innate immunity. We found that the PrgJ-NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome is assembled into multisubunit disk-like structures through a(More)
Dendrite and synapse development are critical for establishing appropriate neuronal circuits, and disrupted timing of these events can alter neural connectivity. Using microarrays, we have identified a nuclear factor I (NFI)-regulated temporal switch program linked to dendrite formation in developing mouse cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). NFI function was(More)
Granule neurons have a central role in cerebellar function via their synaptic interactions with other neuronal cell types both within and outside this structure. Establishment of these synaptic connections and its control is therefore essential to their function. Both intrinsic as well as environmental mechanisms are required for neuronal development and(More)