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Release of ATP from astrocytes is required for Ca2+ wave propagation among astrocytes and for feedback modulation of synaptic functions. However, the mechanism of ATP release and the source of ATP in astrocytes are still not known. Here we show that incubation of astrocytes with FM dyes leads to selective labelling of lysosomes. Time-lapse confocal imaging(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Excessively activated microglia produce several pro-inflammatory enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to damage to surrounding neurons and eventually inducing neurodegeneration. Therefore, the inhibition of microglial(More)
Multi-modal retrieval is emerging as a new search paradigm that enables seamless information retrieval from various types of media. For example, users can simply snap a movie poster to search relevant reviews and trailers. To solve the problem, a set of mapping functions are learned to project high-dimensional features extracted from data of different media(More)
Deep learning has shown outstanding performance in various machine learning tasks. However, the deep complex model structure and massive training data make it expensive to train. In this paper, we present a distributed deep learning system, called SINGA, for training big models over large datasets. An intuitive programming model based on the layer(More)
Previous analyses of dental size in Gigantopithecus blacki indicated marked sexual dimorphism and a trend towards increasing size through time. These studies were based on a sample of over 700 teeth from five localities excavated prior to 1990. Since then, 12 additional cave sites have been discovered in southern China, yielding hundreds of isolated teeth(More)
Microinfarcts are a common clinical feature of the aging brain, particularly in patients with cognitive decline or vascular or Alzheimer's dementia. However, the natural history of these lesions remains largely unexplored. Here we describe a mouse (C57BL/6J) model of multiple diffuse microinfarcts induced by unilateral internal carotid artery injection of(More)
The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the(More)
Multi-modal retrieval is emerging as a new search paradigm that enables seamless information retrieval from various types of media. For example, users can simply snap a movie poster to search for relevant reviews and trailers. The mainstream solution to the problem is to learn a set of mapping functions that project data from different modalities into a(More)
Recently, deep learning techniques have enjoyed success in various multimedia applications, such as image classification and multi-modal data analysis. Two key factors behind deep learning's remarkable achievement are the immense computing power and the availability of massive training datasets, which enable us to train large models to capture complex(More)
Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB), the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs) in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying(More)