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Following from the classical work of Hubel and Wiesel, it has been recognized that the orientation and the on- and off-zones of receptive fields of layer 4 simple cells in the visual cortex are linked to the spatial alignment and properties of the cells in the visual thalamus that relay the retinal input. Here we present evidence showing that the(More)
There is a tightly coupled bidirectional interaction between visual cortex and visual thalamus [lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)]. Using drifting sinusoidal grating stimuli, we compared the response of cells in the LGN with and without feedback from the visual cortex. Raster plots revealed a striking difference in the response pattern of cells with and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess olanzapine's efficacy and tolerability in adolescents with schizophrenia. METHOD One hundred seven inpatient and outpatient adolescents (olanzapine, n = 72, mean age 16.1 years; placebo, n = 35, mean age 16.3 years) with schizophrenia participated in this randomized (2:1), international, multisite, industry-sponsored trial. All(More)
Imputation in admixed populations is an important problem but challenging due to the complex linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern. The emergence of large reference panels such as that from the 1,000 Genomes Project enables more accurate imputation in general, and in particular for admixed populations and for uncommon variants. To efficiently benefit from(More)
Motion perception is qualitatively invariant across different objects and forms, namely, the same motion information can be conveyed by many different physical carriers, and it requires the processing of motion signals consisting of direction, speed, and axis or trajectory of motion defined by a moving object. Compared with the representation of(More)
Since the publication of the first comprehensive linkage map for the laboratory mouse, the architecture of recombination as a basic biological process has become amenable to investigation in mammalian model organisms. Here we take advantage of high-density genotyping and the unique pedigree structure of the incipient Collaborative Cross to investigate the(More)
Fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia is associated with insulin compensative secretion and predicts the onset of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the preservation of dietary flavonoid quercetin on pancreatic β -cell mass and function in fructose-treated rats and INS-1 β -cells. Quercetin was confirmed to reduce serum insulin and leptin levels(More)
Apoptotic nerve cell death is implicated in the pathogenesis of several devastating neurodegenerative conditions, including glaucoma and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. We have devised a noninvasive real-time imaging technique using confocal laser-scanning ophthalmoscopy to visualize single nerve cell apoptosis in vivo, which allows longitudinal study(More)
BACKGROUND Combinations of olanzapine and carbamazepine are often used in clinical practice in the management of mania. AIMS To assess the efficacy and safety of olanzapine plus carbamazepine in mixed and manic bipolar episodes. METHOD Randomised, double-blind, 6-week trial of olanzapine (10-30 mg/day) plus carbamazepine (400-1200 mg/day; n=58) v.(More)
Innovative therapies are needed for advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We have undertaken a genomics based, hypothesis driving, approach to query an emerging potential that epigenetic therapy may sensitize to immune checkpoint therapy targeting PD-L1/PD-1 interaction. NSCLC cell lines were treated with the DNA hypomethylating agent azacytidine(More)